August in American Indian History
By Phil Konstantin
- Every: PASSAMAQUODDY Ceremonial day
- 1836: 2700 CREEKs, including the ones who fought for the whites, are forced to leave Alabama for the Indian Territory, today. Their leader, Opothleyaholo, will be with them.
- 1867: After continued incursions into Indian Territory, Indians decided to teach the whites a lesson along the bozeman trail. After fasting, and other ceremonies, the Indians decided to attack one of the forts along the trail. But, no agreement could be reached on which fort to attack. The CHEYENNEs decided to attack Fort C.F.Smith, in southern Montana, near present day Bighorn Lake. Thirty soldiers and civilians were working in a field of hay a few miles from the fort, when, on this date, a little over 500 CHEYENNE warriors came across the group. A frontal attack was repulsed at great loss to the CHEYENNE because the soldiers had repeating rifles. The Indians then set fire to the hay. The soldiers were inside a log-walled enclosure when they observed a wall of flames 40 feet high approaching them. Luck was on the soldiers side, though. Just before the fire reached the soldiers, it died out. Taking this as an omen, the CHEYENNE gave up the attack.
- 1832: General Henry Atkinson, called "White Beaver" by the Indians, Army regulars, and 3,000 civilian volunteers, will fight with Black Hawk's forces at the battle of Bad Axe River, a few miles south of present day La Crosse in southwest Wisconsin. Approximately 150 Indians will be killed in the fighting. See 8/3 below
- 1813: Today, Fort Stephenson, at modern Fremont, Ohio, will be attacked by British Major Henry A.Proctor, and 1200 British and Indians. The fort is defended by Major George Croghan, and 120 men. The Americans will fire only when the British and Indians are at close range. During the two day battle, the Americans will have only one man killed. The British and Indians will sustain more than 1200 casualties.
- 1813: British & Indians attack Ft. Malden.
- 1814: As an end to the CREEK War, today, Andrew Jackson starts the Fort Jackson Treaty conference, near modern day Wetumpka, Alabama. The treaty will be complete on August 9, 1814.
- 1735: According to some sources, an agreement covering amity and commerce is reached today by representatives of the British in New York, and Western ABENAKI, HOUSATONIC, MOHEGAN and SCAGHTICOKE Indians.
- 1851: One in a series of treaties is signed with California Indians today at Camp Bidwell. The treaties are to reserve lands and to protect the Indians.
- 1615: Champlain enters Georgian Bay.
- 1838: While being held in the Aquohee prison camp during their forced removal from their lands east of the Mississippi River, the CHEROKEE Council holds a meeting. They and Principal Chief John Ross will sign a resolultion stating that the laws of the CHEROKEE Nation remain in effect and their right to exist as a nation cannot be dissolved by the American Government. This official council is the only such meeting to ever be held by an Indian tribe while being held prisoners by a white government.
- 1776: General Andrew Williamson has gathered a force of 1,100 militiamen from South Carolina to fight the CHEROKEEs during the war of 1776. While marching toward the lower CCHEROKEE villages, they will be attacked by British and CHEROKEE forces near Esenka. The surprise attack will give the Indian and British forces the upper hand initially. The South Carolina forces will regroup, though, and they will eventually beat back the attack,. And destroy the town.
- 1866: Today, John Ross, Principal CHEROKEE Chief, dies in Washington D.C.
- 1739: Today several SHAWNEE Chiefs will sign a peace treaty with British Pennsylvania authorities not to become allies with any other country. The British agree to enforce previous treaties banning the sale of rum to the Indians.
- 1861: Some of the SEMINIOLE Chiefs will sign a treaty with the Confederacy, similar to those signed by the CREEKs, and CHICKASAWs on July 10, 1861, and July 12, 1861.
- 1829: The WINNEBAGO sign a treaty today.
- 1953: House Concurrent Resolution 108 is adopted today. This law will remove Indians from their "ward of the state" status, and bring them into an equal citizenship status, with all other Americans. The resolution is only an advisory, it carries no legal weight, and is not a law.
- 1881: Thirty-six civilian volunteers, led by "Mr.Mitchell", are attacked by Nana's APACHEs in the Red Canyon of the San Mateo Mountains, while they are eating dinner. One civilian is killed, and 7 others are wounded. The APACHE seize 38 of the volunteer's mounts.
- 1859: On February 6, 1854, Texas law allows the FederalGgovernment to establish two Indian Reservations on the Brazos River in Texas. Many of the white texas will attack the reservations without cause. To save the Indians, their Federal Agent, robert s. Neighbors, will lead them to a new reservation, on the Washita River, in Indian Territory. With him will travel 1430 CADDO-related Indians, and 380 PENATEKAs. Upon his return to Texas, Neighbors will be murdered.
1780: At the start of American Revolutionary War hostilities, MOHAWKs evacuate their village of Canajoharie, near present day Fort Plain, New York. White settlers will move into the village. Today, Joseph Brant, and MOHAWK warriors attack the settlers. Fourteen settlers will be killed, and 60 will be taken prisoner. Much of the village will be destroyed.
1792: MOHEGAN Samson Occom dies today in New Stockbridge, New York. A protege of Rev.Eleazar Wheelock, Occom will learn numerous foreign languages, become an ordained minister, be the first Indian to preach in England, minister to many Indian tribes, and be instrumental in the establishment of Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.
1855: The Michigan CHIPPEWA sign a treaty today.
1837; Today, the first contingent of 150 CHICKASAWs from Alabama arrive at Fort coffee in eastern Indian Territory on the steamship "Indian".
1867: At the same ceremonies attended by the CHEYENNE earlier in the week, Red Cloud and Crazy Horse's SIOUX decided to attack Fort Phil Kearny, in northern Wyoming, south of present day Sheridan. Hoping to lure the soldiers out of the fort, Crazy Horse launched a diversionary attack on a woodcutter's camp near the fort. A large group of warriors went in hiding, waiting for the soldiers to come to rescue the woodcutters. For some reason, the Indians in hiding revealed themselves prematurely, and the ambush failed. Since the soldiers would not leave the fort, Red Cloud horse decided to direct his entire force against the woodcutters. The woodcutters had built an barricade of logs and wagon beds. Red cloud faced the same rapid firing rifles, the cheyennes had faced the previous day. Charges on horseback, and on foot, proved to be too costly to the sioux. The SIOUX gathered their dead and left.
1836: Today, 210 CREEK "prisoners" leaveMmontgomery, Alabama, on a boat escorted by Captain F.S.Belton. They are bound for the Indian Territory.
1869: After resupplying at Fort Sedgwick, in the northeast corner of Colorado from the Summit Springs fight with Tall Bull's followers, Col.William Royall assumes command of the fifth cavalry force, previously under Gen.Eugene Carr's command. On the first night out of the fort, as the troops were about to set up camp, a band of Indians are discovered. However, the Indians manage to escape under the cover of darkness. The cavalry follow the Indians' trail for 225 mile to the north until the Army forces finally give up near the Niobrara River in dakota.
1675: Captain Thomas Wheeler, with twenty militia, and 3 Indian guides, have arranged a meeting with the NIPMUCKs. The whites hope to make the NIPMUCKs allies in their fight against the WAMPANOAGS.. However, the NIPMUCKs have already joined up with King Philip's WAMPANOAGS. When the NIPMUCKSs are not at the meeting site, the English search for them, against the advice of their Indian guides. Today, a joint force of NIPMUCKs and WAMPANOAGS attack Wheeler's force. Half of Wheeler's force is killed in the initial attack. Wheeler retreats to Brookfield, in central Massachusetts. Wheeler, and the 80 local residents move into a small, wooden, community fort. The indians stage a siege, and make several unsuccessful attempts to burn the building. One settler manages to escape, and run for help. Within a few days Major Simon Willard, and four dozen men reach Brookfield, and engage the Indians. The English will claim to have killed 80 warriors in the subsequent fighting.
1951: Raymond Harvey gets the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1871: After their conviction for murder, Satanta, and Big Tree are delivered to the prison in Huntsville, Texas, to serve their time.
1689: A small force of 30 men, led by Lt.James Weems, are occupying the fort at Pemaquid, Maine. They are attacked today by almost 100 ABNAKI Indians. The soldiers will eventually surrender, and those who aren't killed, are taken as prisoners to Canada.
1761: According to some records, a conference regarding land questions and the return of prisoners will be held for the next ten days between representatives of the British in Pennsylvania and the CAYUGA, CONOY, DELAWARE, MAHICAN, NANTICOKE, ONEIDA and ONONDAGA Indians.
1795: Today the "Greenville" Ohio Treaty is concluded with 12 tribes, ending "Little Wolf's War". Prisoners are to be restored on both sides. New boundary lines will be established. Land will be given up for Fort Defiance, Fort Wayne, a British fort on the Miami River, the old fort on Sandusky Lake, the post at Detroit, Fort Michilimackinac in Michigan, the old fort on the Chicago River and Lake Michigan, Fort St.Vincennes in Indiana, Fort Massac, and Old Pioria's Fort. Certain roads will be opened to unmolested travel by whites. The annuity, in goods, for these lands will be worth $9,500. They will receive $20,000 now. The Indians can hunt in their old lands, if they do so peacefully. No whites may live on Indian lands without the Indians' approval. The President is authorized to license all traders. All former treaties are now void! The treaty will be signed by General "Mad" Anthony Wayne, and 90 Indians. The spelling of Greenville varies by document. It is sometimes called Grenville, and other variations.
1869: General Alfred Sully, Military Superintendent of Indian Affairs, writes today that lawless whites, and whiskey sellers, are driving the Montana Indians to warfare. In his opinion, only military force against the whites will stop a conflict.
1492: Columbus sails for the New World.
1832: Black hawk has been chased back westward to the Mississippi River. General Winfield Scott has outfitted a steamboat, "The Warrior", with artillery. Today he confronts Black Hawk. Initially Black Hawk attempts to parlay, but the 1,300 white forces are out for blood. In the subsequent fighting, almost 200 warriors would be killed, while the soldiers would lose a tenth of that. Black Hawk would escape, but he would be captured by other Indians, some time later. About 200 SAC Indians will make it across the river, only to be killed by SIOUX Indians on the west bank.
1777: Today, British Colonel Barry St.Leger, and 1,400 Indians and British soldiers start the attack, and siege of Fort Stanwix, near modern Rome, New York. The fort is defended by Colonel Peter Gansevoort, and 550 men. The British and Indians will continue the siege until August 22, 1777.
1948: A New Mexico court rules that Indians can vote.
1889: General Crook, and the other treaty commissioners, were having no luck in convincing the large groups of SIOUX and the Standing Rock Agency to agree to move to smaller reservations, and to sell their "excess" lands for $1.50 an acre. Sitting Bull continued to "disrupt" the meetings with his angry denunciation of any attempts to sell Indian lands. Crook decided he would make more progress by talking to the tribal leaders individually. On this date, without informing Sitting Bull, Crook held a final meeting. Local agent James McLaughlin had his tribal police surround the meeting site to prevent any of the rabble-rousers from attending. Eventually, Sitting Bull worked his way past the police, and addressed the meeting. Sitting Bull was incensed because he had not been informed of the meeting. McLaughlin told the meeting that everyone knew of the meeting. At that time, Chief John Grass, and many of the other Chiefs came forward to sign the treaty, and to break up the large reservation. Sitting Bull vented his frustration at the other Chiefs, but he was out voted.
1716: Today, the fort that French Commander Bienville demanded as partial reparations for the killing of five Frenchmen, is finished. It will be named Fort Rosalie by Bienville. It is located on a high hill near the main NATCHEZ village on the Mississippi River. This episode would be called the first war with the NATCHEZ, by the French. The second war will take place in October, 1722. It would be a very short encounter. The fourth war with the NATCHEZ would see the largest single battle at Fort Rosalie onNnovember 28, 1729.
1788: Militia from the ersatz state of "Franklin" will arrest CHEROKEE Principal Chief Old Tassel, and Hanging Maw. They will be charged with the murders of Colonel William Christian, John Donelson. Old Tassel will convince the men from Franklin that Dragging Canoe's CHICKAMAUGA followers did the deed.
1877: To contend with the fleeing NEZ PERCE, Col.John Gibbon has assembled a force of companies a,d,f,g,i, and k, seventh infantry, and 30 civilian volunteers, for a total of 191 men. After departing from Fort Shaw, Montana, Gibbon's force arrives in Missoula, Montana, today.
1880: After the fighting on July 31, 1880, Col.Benjamin Grierson, and his troops, and been tracking several bands of Victorio's Indians. One band engages in a fight on the Alamo River, today. Several parties are wounded on both sides. Victorio's supply camp is attacked by Captain Thomas Lebo, and troop k, tenth cavalry. Most of the supplies are seized, and the Indians are chased to the Escondido River.
1881: Lt.John Guilfoyle, and his ninth cavalry troops, attacks Nana's APACHEs at Monica Springs, New Mexico. Two Indians are wounded, and 11 head of livestock are seized. According to Guilfoyle's report, he estimates Nana's forces at 20 to 30 warriors.
1742: According to some reports, a meeting is held today between representatives of the British in Massachuesetts and the MALISEET, NORRIDGEWOCK, PASSAMAQUODDY, PENOBSCOT, PIGWACKET and ST.FRANCIS Indians regarding trade problems.
1824: The SAC & FOX, and the IOWA Indians sign a treaty today in Washington, D.C..
1856: Ft.Randall secedes Ft.Pierre.
1825: The CROW sign a treaty today.
1528: Having just left the Indian village he called Aute, Panfilo de Narvaez, and his Spanish expeditionary force reaches the Gulf of Mexico, again. They will start to build boats for their return to Spanish civilization. It will take them a month and a half to build five "barges".
1813: Today, 500 warriors of the Vhite Stick faction of the CREEKs gather in Coweta, across the river in Alabama from modern-day Columbus Georgia. With 200 CHEROKEE warriors, they make plans to attack a band of Red Stick CREEKs, followers of Tecumseh, over 2,500 strong. The White Sticks will be led by Tustunnuggee Thlucco and Tustunnuggee Hopoie.
1862: In July, the money promised to the SANTEE SIOUX in Minnesota was scheduled to arrive. When Little Crow, and the other SIOUX, reported to their reservation's upper agency on the Yellow Medicine River, they were told the money had not arrived. The winter had been bad, and the summer crops were poor. Little Crow asked Agent Thomas Galbraith to open up the local warehouse, which was full of food. Galbraith said there would be no food if there was no money. On this date, Little crow, and 500 SIOUX warriors surround the badly outnumber soldiers guarding the warehouse. The SANTEE break in and start unloading supplies. The commanding officer of the garrison, Timothy Sheehan, understands the frustration of the hungry Indians, and he convinces Galbraith to officially issue the food to the SANTEE. Little Crow also gets a promise that the lower agency will also issue supplies. The SANTEE then leave peacefully.
1873: Elements of the seventh cavalry engage in two fights with SIOUX Indians in the Yellowstone area today. Captain Myles Moylan, and troops a, and b, acting as an advance party, fight the SIOUX near the Tongue River, in Dakota. One soldier is reported missing, and presumed dead. Lt.Col.George Custer, and the main body of the seventh cavalry, encounter several hundred SIOUX on the Yellowstone River, in Montana. Four soldiers are killed. Lt.Charles Braden, and three soldiers are wounded in the fighting.
1991: A Museum returns Indian goods to the OMAHA Indians.
1879: Captain Samuel Ovenshine, and soldiers from the fifth infantry, a part of Col.Nelson Miles' command, arrives at a camp of "half-breeds", on Porcupine Creek, believed to be supplying the "hostile" SIOUX with guns and ammunition. Captain Ovenshine arrests the "half-breeds", and seizes 43 carts with supplies, and 193 horses.
1853: ROGUE RIVER Indians are upset by the presence of goldminers in their lands. They kill Edward Edwards on Stewart's Creek, near Jacksonville, today. This led to widespread hostilities.
1763: Pontiac's Rebellion: "The Battle of Bushy Run", Pennsylvania: Henry Bouquet, and 460 troops, are marching to reinforce Fort Pitt in western Pennsylvania from Carlisle, near Harrisburg. A little over 20 miles from Fort Pitt, Bouquet's troops are attacked by a force of WYANDOTs, SHAWNEEs, MONGOs, and DELAWAREs. After an inconclusive battle, both sides withdraw.
1882: Today congress passes an Act (22 stat.299) which will authorize the President to establish a reservation for the PAPAGO Indians in Arizona. The President will issue the establishing order on July 1, 1874.
1838: The second group of CHEROKEE prisoners forcibly removed to the Indian Territory will arrive in their new lands in the Indian Territory. Of the 875 who originally left Ross' Landing (Chattanooga, Tennessee) on June 13th, only 602 will arrive. While some of the captive CHEROKEEs would escape, many of the 273 missing CHEROKEEs would die enroute.
1826: The CHIPPEWA sign a treaty at Fond du Lac today
1851: (10 stat.954) A treaty with the MDEWAKATON and WAHPAKOOTA Bands of SIOUX Indians is signed today.
1877: 972 CHEYENNEs left Fort Robinson, in northwestern Nebraska, enroute to Fort Reno, in central Indian Territory, on the CHEYENNE & ARAPAHO Reservation, under escort by Lt.Henry Lawton. On the way, a few young warriors sneak away, and some of the old people die. Today, 937 CHEYENNEs, under Little Wolf, and Dull Knife, will reach Fort Reno. They will turn over their horses and weapons to the soldiers under Col.Ranald Mackenzie.
1836: Abel Pepper, representing the United States, and POTAWATOMI Indians signed a treaty today at Yellow River, Indiana. The POTAWATOMIs will trade lands acquired a few years ago for $14,080. They will also agree to move west of the Mississippi River.
1881: The Crow Dog murder case goes to the Supreme Court.
1876: General George Crook, with reinforcements, moves his troops down the Tongue River toward the Black Hills, looking for "hostiles".
1879: Elements of Col.Nelson Miles' command arrest four more camps of "half-breeds" believed to be supplying Sitting Bull's SIOUX with food, arms, and ammunition. The Army seizes 308 carts of supplies.
1861: The CREEKs signed a treaty with the Confederacy on July 10, 1861. Today, CREEKs from the Canadian district meet, and depose their old Chief. The number two Chief, Oktarharsars Harjo, called Sands, takes over. He will be pro-union.
8/5-:10/all pueblos symbolic relay race - p.289
1763: After yesterday's inconclusive fighting at Bushy Run, in southwestern Pennsylvania, Henry Bouquet's force of almost 450, devise a plan to surprise the WYANDOT, SHAWNEE, MINGO and DELAWAREs who are fighting then. Bouquet will fake a retreat which will lead the following Indians into a trap. Both sides will lose a total of about 100 men in the fighting. The indians will give up the battle, and Bouquet will continue on to relieve Fort Pitt. Some of the Indians involved in "Pontiac's Rebellion" will be less inclined to fight in the future, after this battle.
1777: Battle of Oriskany, near Fort Stanwix, New York: General Nicholas Herkimer will fight the British. He will lose the battle, but 33 IROQUOIS will be killed on the British side. Many Indians would leave the British forces after the battle.
1836: The second group of "friendly" CREEK Indians, led by William McGillivrey and Army Lt.R.B.Screvens, leave Wetumka, just north of Montgomery, Alabama. The group of approximately 3,022 CREEKs are bound for the Indian Territory. Many more CREEKs will join them en route. Also on this date, 1,170 "friendly" CREEKs leave the Talledega area, led by Lt.Edward Deas.
1846: The old settlers and the new emigrants factions of the CHEROKEE have been arguing over who has legal control of the CHEROKEE Nation since the late 1830s. It has even been proposed that the nation split into two tribes. Today, the different sides will sign a treaty in Washington,D.C. The treaty will confirm that there will only be one CHEROKEE Nation.
1840: Today, hundreds of COMANCHEs, led by Buffalo Hump, surround, and attack Victoria, Texas. In the next two days, 15 settlers are killed in the fighting. The COMANCHEs will take several hundred head of livestock.
1687: According to some sources, an agreement of alliance is reached today between reprersentatives of the "FIVE NATIONS" and the British in New York.
1676: Weetamoo was the Sachem of the WAMPANOAG town of Pocasset, Rhode Island. The sister-in-law of King Philip, she lead as many as 300 warriors in battle. Today, while trying to escape from European soldiers from Taunton, Massachusetts, she will drown in the Taunton River. Her head will be cut off, and displayed on a pole in the town.
1867: CHEYENNE wreck a train in Nebraska.
1945: Today, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs will modify the boundaries of certain indian lands in new mexico. This will modify an order establishing the previous boundaries on September 1, 1939.
1880: Soldiers attack a band of Indians in Rattlesnake Canyon, Texas. The Indians escape in all directions. Captain John Gilmore, and company h, twenty-fourth infantry, are guarding a wagon train, when they are attacked by Indians from the Rattlesnake Canyon fight. All total, 4 Indians are killed, according to Army reports.
1757: According to some reports, a peace agreement is reached today by representatives of the British and the DELAWARE, MAHICAN, NANTICOKE, SHAWNEE and "SIX NATIONS" tribes.
1787: The Northwest Ordinance.
1760: After the start of the CHEROKEE War, with the killing of 17 hostage CHEROKEE Chiefs in Fort Prince George, the CHEROKEEs vow revenge. They will eventually attack Fort Loudoun on the Little Tennessee River. Today, the English, under Captain Paul Demere, will surrender the fort with the proviso that they will be delivered to Fort Prince George.
1790: Today a treaty (7 stat.35) with the CREEKs is signed in New York City. The CREEKs acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States. All CREEK prisoners, white or black, will be returned. New boundary lines will be established. No whites may live in CREEK lands with the CREEK's approval. The treaty is signed by Alexander McGillivray, and 23 other CREEKs. The treaty will be repudiated by the non-McGillivray CREEKs. The treaty also required the SEMINOLEs to return all former black slaves living with them. The SEMINOLEs would reject the idea that the CREEKs could make treaties for them. A section of the treaty kept secret from the Indians made McGillivray a Brigadier-General in the American Army.
1869: A solar eclipse is draw on Lone Dog's chronicle of the years.
1803: today a treaty with the "FIVE NATIONS" is concluded at Vincennes, Indiana. The treaty refers to the treaty of June 7, 1803 regarding the establishment of traveler's inns, and entertainment houses on roads through Indian lands. The treaty will be signed by William Henry Harrison, and 10 Indians.
1840: Today, CALUSA SEMINOLE Chief Chakaika, will lead a group of Indians in an attack on the settlement on Indian Key. Indian Key is midway along the florida keys. Thirteen whites will be killed in the attack, and most of the farms will be looted and burned.
1670: On this date, APACHE or NAVAJOs attack the ancient ZUNI Pueblo of Hawikuh. They burn the church, and kill the resident missionary.
1856: The CREEK & SEMINOLE sign a treaty today with the United States.
1786: An Ordinance for the regulation of Indian affairs is passed today. It establishes two Indian Departments for the Ohio River area. One will be north, the other will be south of the river. A superintendent will be appointed for each department. He will be able to grant trade licenses.
1965: Today, at the University of Oklahoma, over 500 leaders from most of the Oklahoma tribes hold a meeting. They form the organization, Oklahomans for Indian Opportunity (OIO). One of the OIO's first projects will work on community improvement, job training, and leadership programs for indian youth.
1758: According to some reports, a peace conference is held for the next two days between representatives of the British in New Jersey and the MINISINK Indians.
1938: Today, legal questions are raised about the legality of the use of peyote as a sacrament in religious ceremonies by Indians on reservations in South Dakota.
1865: Today will mark the first written use of the name "Sitting Bull" in English.
1699: The TOHOME Indians live along the gulf coast in Alabama and Mississippi. Tiday, in Biloxi, they will formally establish peaceful relations with the French.
1829: The DELAWARE sign a treaty today.
1744: Today, France will give trader Joseph Deruisseau the sole rights to trade with Indians in the area of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers. He will build Fort Cavagnial in what is now modern-day, Kansas City.
1760: The Governor of South Carolina has accuses the CHEROKEEs of murdering a white man. When he demands that two major Chiefs be turned over for execution, and that 24 others be handed in for thinking about aggressive acts, a war develops. The CHEROKEEs attack a column enroute to Fort Loudoun, in southeastern Tennessee. They then attack, and capture, Fort Loudoun in the southern Appalachian Mountains.
1587: A little over a week ago, one of the English colonists in the Roanoke colony in North Carolina was killed by an Indian. Today, colony leader John White will lead two dozen men in a raid to punish the killer. Their zeal for revenge outweighted their judgement, though. They killed an CROATAN Indian, but it was the wrong one. Some historians believe this might have led to the eventual disappearance of the Roanoke colony.
1831: The SHAWNEE sign a treaty today.
1780: Today, American forces under George Rogers Clark attack the SHAWNEE village of Piqua in Kentucky. The Americans will win the fight. Clark's cousin Joseph Rogers was being held captive by the SHAWNEE. He will be shot and killed as an Indian by the Americans.
1856: Ft.Simcoe is established.
1850: Today, Lt.Colonel Edwin Sumner, will establish Fort Atkinson west of modern-day Dodge City, Kansas. The fort will be used as a base for the next four years to control the Indians along this stretch of the Santa Fe Trail. The fort will be made entirely of sod.
1877: Traveling from Fort Robinson, in northwestern Nebraska, 235 NORTHERN CHEYENNE men, 312 women, and 386 children arrive at the CHEYENNE and ARAPAHO Agency, at Fort Reno, in central Indian Territory. The military guard turns them over to the local Indian Agent. The CHEYENNE had surrendered after the Army campaigns of 1877.
1814: The day before the end of the Fort Jackson Treaty, which officially ended the CREEK War, Tustunnuggee Thlucco, representing the Jackson's CREEK allies, present him with a parcel of land three miles square, "in remembrance of the important services you have done us." The CREEKs, even his allies, will lose much of their lands under this treaty, so the purpose of the gift is not really certain, was it sincere or a subtle joke?
1855: Today a treaty will be signed between the United States and the CAPOTE BAND of UTAH Indians in "Abiquiu," New Mexico Territory.
1879: Col.Nelson Miles' troops have been seeking out "half-breeds" believed to be supplying Sitting Bull's SIOUX with food, guns, and ammunition. Today, Miles reports that his soldiers are arrested 829 "half-breeds", and interdicted 665 carts of supplies.
1814: Treaty of Ft.Jackson: This treaty (7 stat.120) will officially end the CREEK War. The CREEKs, including those who fought with Andrew Jackson, will be forced to cede 22,000,000 acres, almost half their lands, to the United States. Timpoochee Barnard, one of the YUCHI Indian allies of the Americans, was one of the signatories to the treaty of Fort Jackson. Fort Jackson, formerly Fort Toulouse, is in modern day Wetumpka, Alabama.
1843: PENATEKAS COMANCHE Chief Pahayuca signs a truce with Texas Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Joseph Eldredge, today. A full-fledged treaty would not be arranged, though.
1646: According to some sources, a treaty will be reached today between the Providence Plantations and the WAMPANOAG Indians. Epace will be pledged and the Indians will give up some lands.
1757: Ft.William Henry surrenders.
1869: At Grinnell Station, Kansas, Indians destroy 150 yards of telegraph lines before the station detachment can chase them off.
1805: Pike begins Mississippi expedition.
1877: NEZ PERCE War: The army is led by Colonel John Gibbon. It was his men who found the remains of Custer's forces after the Battle of the Little Big Horn. Depending on the source you use, 183 to 191 soldiers start the fight, 29 to 31 soldiers are killed in the fighting, including Captain William Logan, and First Lt.James Bradley. Forty soldiers will be wounded, including Col.Gibbon. The soldiers will mount a surprise attack at dawn. The NEZ PERCE will have set up 89 tepees in a mountain valley called the Big Hole, west of modern-day Wisdom, Montana. The soldiers take the upper hand in the fighting early on. When the NEZ retreat, the victorious soldiers do not follow. This allows the NEZ PERCE to regroup and to mount a counter attack. Captain Richard Comba, in charge of the burial detail, reports finding the bodies of 89 NEZ PERCE on the battlegrounds. Chief Joseph stated his losses as 30 warriors, and 50 women and children killed during the two day fight. Private Lorenzo D.Brown, company a, seventh infantry, private Wilfred Clark, company l, second cavalry, and first sergeant William D.Edwards, company f, seventh infantry, musician John McLennon, company a, Sergeant Patrick Rogan, conpany a, and sergeant Milden Wilson, company i, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their actions in the fighting.
1911: Ishi comes into Oroville, California.
1880: According to a report from the commanding officer of Fort Davis, Texas, General Byrne, from Fort Worth, Texas, is killed today by Indians near Fort Quitman, which is in west Texas near the Rio Grande.
1878: Captain Harry C.Egbert, and his troops, find 100 "hostiles" on an island in Bennett's Creek. After several hours of sniping by both sides, the Indians escape toward the snake river.
Every: (through the 10th) PICURIS Pueblo festival.
1680: The PUEBLO Rebellion takes place today in New Mexico.
1868: Approximately 225 CHEYENNE, ARAPAHOs, and SIOUX descend upon settlements on the Saline River, north of Fort Harker, in central Kansas. After being fed by the settlers, the Indians attack. They loot and burn six homes, and "brutally outrage four females until insensible", according to official Army reports.
1703: As a part of Queen Anne's War, French officers lead 500 Indians Against the settlers at Wells, Maine, near the New Hampshire border. Thirty-nine settlers will be killed or captured.
1707: On the fourth anniversary of the August 10th attack on Wells, Maine, Indians will stage another attack. Six settlers will be killed in the fighting.
1868: Lt.Col.Alfred Sully is in the field, near the Cimmaron River, in Kansas, with a long column of troops. A group of Indians attack both the front and the rear of the column. The advance troops charge. Two Indians are killed, the soldiers lose no one. In the rear, the soldiers put up a defense, but lose one man. The Indians sustain 10 fatalities, and 12 are reported wounded during the engagement.
1825: The GREAT & LITTLE OSAGE treaty is signed today at Council Grove, Kansas.
1876: Terry & Crook joinup on the Rosebud.
1815: The half brother of Cornplanter, Skaniadariio (Handsome Lake) was born near Ganawagus, New York sometime around 1735. He fought in many battles during the French and Indian Wars, and during the American Revolution. Later he would battle alcoholism. One day a vision led him to give up drinking and to promote traditional Indian ways among his people. He became a Chief among the SENECA based on his wise council. He once spoke before President Jefferson on behalf of his people. His teachings have been handed down among the IROQUOIS. He died today in Onondaga.
1861: Stand Watie's CHEROKEE troops fight on the Confederate side at the Battle of Wilson's Creek, in southern Missouri. The southerners will be victorious. However, the participation of the CHEROKEEs on the side of the south will lead to further tensions among the CHEROKEEs who wish to remain neutral.
1820: The WEA sign a treaty today.
1827: At Butte des Morts, near Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, Lewis Cass, and Thomas McKenney, sign a treaty today with the WINNEBAGO, CHIPPEWA, and MENOMINEE Indians. This will establish boundaries between the involved tribes, and other tribes who have moved into Wisconsin.
1873: According to army reports, Lt.Col.George Custer, and ten troops of the seventh cavalry, are attacked by a large group of SIOUX Indians on the Yellowstone River, in Montana. Four Indians were killed, and 12 wounded in the fighting.
1760: In retaliation for the murder of 17 CHEROKEE Chiefs held hostage in Fort Prince George, today CHEROKEE warriors will kill 30 of the prisoners they took when Fort Loudoun fell a few days ago. This "Fort Loudoun Massacre" will lead to retaliation by the English.
1988: The ALEUT receive restitution for loses in WWII today.
1830: The President holds a meeting about Indian removal from the southern States.
1762: According to some reports, a conference regarding questions over land and the return of prisoners will be held for the next 18 days between representatives of the British in Pennsylvania and the CONOY, DELAWARE, KICKAPOO, MIAMI, SHAWNEE and "SIX NATIONS" tribes.
1760: According to some reports, representatives of the British and the "SIX NATIONS nations" meet today to discuss friendship between the two groups.
Every: The SANTA CLARE PUEBLO festival is held today.
1878: The PAIUTE Chief Oytes, and his followers, will surrender today. This will effectively end the paiutes' participation in the bannock war.
1865: The SNAKE Indians agree to go to the Klamath Reservation.
1805: Lewis finds an Indian road & the continental divide, today.
1676: During a skirmish with white colonists, King Philip of the WAMPANOAGs is urged to end the battle by one of his warriors. Philip becomes so angry with the warrior for suggesting this that he clubs him to death. The dead warriors brother, Alderman, goes to Captain Benjamin Church, and offers to lead him to King Philip. Today, good to his word, Alderman showed Church, and his men, King Philip's camp in a swamp at Mount Hope. The soldiers surrounded Philip. As Philip attempted to escape by a back trail, Alderman, stationed there by Church, shoots, and kills him. Philip's head will be taken to Plymouth and displayed on a pole for two decades. This will end King Philip's War. As many as 600 English, and perhaps five times that number of Indians, would be killed during the war.
1868: A large group of Indians, again attack Sully's troops, who are encamped. An attempt to stampede the army horses is foiled. During several hours of heavy fighting, 2 soldiers are killed, 3 are wounded. Indian losses are reported as 12 killed, and 15 wounded.
1868: The same group of CHEYENNE, ARAPAHO and SIOUX who attacked the Saline river settlements, attacks settlements along the Solomon River, Kansas. They loot and burn 5 home. Fifteen people are killed, and 5 women are "outraged." A small band, of this group, crosses to the Republican River, and kills 2 people there. The main body of Indians returns to the Saline River area. Here they encounter Captain Benteen, and his seventh cavalry troopers, who had rushed to the area from Fort Zarah, in central Kansas. A running skirmish takes place over 10 miles.
1881: Captain Charles Parker, and 19 ninth cavalry, company k, troopers, attacks Nana's APACHEs, 25 miles west of Sabinal, New Mexico, in Carrizo Canyon. One soldier is killed, three wounded, and one reported missing. Captain Parker estimates the Indian losses to be similar to his own. The Indians escape after the fighting. For his actions in defending the right side of the soldiers position, segerant George Jordan will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Sergeant Thomas Shaw will also be awarded the Medal for his actions during the fighting.
1861: Albert Pike will sign two treaties today. Both will give the Indians agreements similar to those signed by the CREEKs on July 10, 1861. One treaty will be signed by the WICHITAs, CADDOs, PENATEKA COMANCHEs. The other treaty will be signed by 4 bands of the Plains COMANCHEs.
1840: A band of as many as a 1000 COMANCHE, and KIOWA Indians have been raiding the area from Austin to the Gulf Coast of Texas. Today, while between San Antonio and Austin, near present day Lockhart, on Plum Creek, they encounter General Felix Huston's troops, including Colonel Edward Burleson of the Battle of The Neches "fame", and a few TONKAWAs, and a fight develops. According to reports by the Texans, 86 Indians, and 2 Texans were killed in the fighting. The tonkawas were reported to have dined on some COMANCHE limbs that evening in celebration of the victory.
1831: George Gaines, a white man the CHOCTAWs trust, is appointed Special Agent to supervise the "collection and removal" of the CHOCTAWs to the west bank of the Mississippi River. Here they will be turned over to the Army. The CHOCTAWs wanted Gaines to handle the entire process. They felt he would not exploit them. George was the younger brother of General Edmund Gaines.
1645: For several years, the Dutch, and the local Indian tribes near New Amsterdam and Pavonia, have been fighting. Today, HACKENSACK Chief Oratamin will negotiate a peace between the waring parties. It would be another ten years before another major conflict erupted.
1872: Few young Indians attack Baker's forces late at night.
1720: A Spanish expeditionary force, led by Don Pedro de Villasur, of 42 Spaniards and 60 Indians, has set out to "show the flag" in territory claimed by Spain. They are concerned about French incursions into their territory in the central plains. Today, the Spanish and their Indian allies are attacked by a force of French and PAWNEEs on the North Platte River. Most of the Spanish expedition will be killed in the fighting.
1804: DELAWARE Indians sell some of their land today.
1803: The KASKASKIA Treaty is signed today at Vincennes in Indiana. The Indians will cede all of their lands in Illinois to the United States. The treaty says they have depopulated that area, and no longer need it. The KASKASKIA will get to keep 350 acres of Illinois, near the township of Kaskaskia. They were granted this small spot by a Congressional Act on March 3, 1791. They will also be allowed to keep an additional 1280 acres of land in Illinois. The United States will protect the KASKASKIA from other Indians. Their annuity will increase to $1000. A house, and a fenced field of 100 acres will be provided for the Chief. They will get $100 a year, for seven years, to support a catholic priest, and $300 to build a church. They will receive $580 to pay for goods, and debts. The Indians will be able to hunt on their old lands, as long as the lands remain Government property. The treaty is signed by William Henry Harrison, and 6 Indians.
1786: In a letter to Colonel Benjamin Hawkins, President Jefferson expresses the idea that Indians do not own their lands, but are, instead, only "tenants at will" in lands that the United States had a mandate to own.
1868: This will be the last of 370 treaties made by the United States Government and Indian tribes.
1868: For a third time, Indians attack Lt.Col.Alfred Sully and his column of third infantry troops. One soldier is killed, 4 wounded. Ten Indians are killed, and 12 wounded according to Army reports.
1587: Manteo, a CROTAN Indian has converted to the Church of England. Today, he is baptized by Sir Walter Raleigh. In respect for his help with Raleigh's colonists, Raleigh gives him the title of "Lord of Roanoke and of Dasamonquepeuk."
1973: An Office of Indian Rights is proposed today by the Department of Justice.
1946: An Indian Claims Commission is estabished today to settle land claims.
1954: Federal Termination Act today says that Tribes will no longer receive Federal "help."
1949: An Act of Congress (63 stat. 604) today adds almost 60,000 acres to the ZUNI Reservation System in Arizona & New Mexico.
1880: Captain Nicholas Nolan, troop a, tenth cavalry, troop k, eighth cavalry, a few LIPAN Indian scouts, and some Texas Rangers, chase Victorio's Indians across the Rio Grande, into Mexico, 12 miles below Quitman, Texas.
1806: Today, Lewis & Clark first reach a MINNETAREE & MANDAN village.
1868: On the Republican River, near Granny Creek, Indians loot and burn a home. One person is killed, one woman is captured and "outraged".
1868: Near Fort Zarah, near present day Great Bend, in central Kansas, Indians steal 20 mules, which are recaptured by troops, later that day. During the conflict, one soldier and five Indians are wounded, and 1 Indian is reported killed.
1756: Ft.George attacked
1836: CREEKs already established in the Indian Territory, hold a council today to decide how to deal with the forced emigrants soon to arrive. Roley McIntosh does not want the new arrivals to take over. Government forces will proclaim McIntosh the CREEK leader. The new CREEK arrivals will acknowledge McIntosh's leadership role.
1872: Major E.M.Baker, and troops f,g,h,and l, second cavalry, and companies c,e,g, and i, seventh infantry are near Pryor's Fork, Montana, when they are attacked by several hundred CHEYENNE & SIOUX. According to Army files, one soldier, and 1 citizen, are killed. Three soldiers are wounded. The Indian tally is 2 killed, and 10 wounded, "most of them mortally". During some of the fighting Sitting Bull sits in an open area and smokes. He does this while soldiers shoot at him. It is to prove his bravery.
1559: Tristan de Luna y Arellano has been appointed to establish Spanish settlements on Pensacola Bay by the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico. Today, his expedition of 13 ships, several priests, 500 soldiers, and 1000 settlers will arrive in Pensacola Bay, in Florida. Much of the expedition will be killed or starve because of a hurricane which struck the area a few days later.
1879: Lt.Col.J.N.G.Whistler, and soldiers under Col.Nelson Miles' command, capture 57 Rosebud Agency Indians, crossing the Missouri, near Poplar Creek. According to Army information, these Indians were headed to Canada to join Sitting bull.
1880: En route from Redwater Montana, to Poplar Creek Agency, company h, fifth infantry, encounters 20 lodges of "hostile" Indians, who wish to surrender. Company h will deliver them to Fort Keogh,in eastern Wyoming, today. Also today, troop e, second cavalry, brings in 24 lodges (approximately 140 Indians) of MINNECONJOU, captured the Missouri River.
1812: Today Tecumseh tells Sir Isaac Brock, "We gave the forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game, and in return what did they give our warriors and our women? Rum and trinkets and a grave."
8/15/1514: Las Casas releases the Indians held as serfs.
8/15/1935: CHEROKEE humorist Will Rogers dies.
1782: Tonight, British Captain William Caldwell, Simon Girty, and 200 Indians will surround Bryan's Station in Kentucky in preparations to attack the settlement tomorrow.
1642: In instructions to the Pennsylvania Governor John Printz, of New Sweden, the Queen of Sweden wished for "the wild nations" to be treated kindly, and in a humane manner. She also stated that the Indians were the "rightful lords" of this land, and must be treated accordingly.
1858: Lt.J.K.Allen, and 15 soldiers, surround the YAKIMA camp of Katihotes. They capture 71 Indians, and some livestock. A few of the captured I3ndians are determined to be the murderers of two local miners. They will be shot. Lt.Allen was killed during the early morning attack.
1876: Congress passes a law requiring the Indians to relinquish their lands in the Powder River, and the Black Hills regions.
1987: The United States Post Office issues the Red Cloud stamp today.
1680: Siege of Santa Fe begins
1862: The SANTEE SIOUX's annuity has not arrived on time. On 8/5, the SANTEE surrounded the food warehouse serving the upper villages. The soldiers allowed them to take the food. The commander told Agent Thomas Galbraith to give the Indians the food on credit. The Indians got Galbraith to promise to distribute food to the SANTEEs in the lower villages. Today, Galbraith joins 4 local traders at the lower villages. The Indians soon realize Galbraith does not plan on distributing the food until the money arrives. Galbraith asks the local traders what they want to do. Andrew Myrick says, "If they are hungry, let them eat grass or their own dung." This comment would come back to haunt him when the SANTEEs revolt. The SANTEEs are furious, but they leave.
Every: ZIA Pueblo festival
1861: Oktarharsars Harjo, called Sands by the whites, and Opothle Yahola, representing the pro-Union CREEKs, write to President Lincoln requesting the protection promised in their removal treaties.
1812: British & Indian forces confront Ft.Detroit.
1812: General William Hull orders Captain William Wells to abandon Fort Dearborn, in present day Chicago. As the occupants are leaving, almost 500 Indians attack them. Half of the Americans are killed, the other half are taken prisoner.
1872: Captain William McCleave, and troop b, eighth cavalry are attacked by Indians on Palo Duro Creek, in New Mexico Territory. Four Indians are killed. One soldier, and 8 Indians are wounded.
1740: According to some sources, a conference regarding a peace agreement and a "covenant with the southern Indians" was held for the next 4 days by representatives of Great Britain and the "SIX NATIONS."
1872: Col.D.S.Stanley, and soldiers from the twenty-second infantry are attacked by a large group of Indians near the Yellowstone River, in Montana. Army reports do not mention the outcome of the skirmish.
1812: SHAWNEE Chief Tecumseh has been commissioned as a Brigadier General by the British. With his Indians forces, he will be instrumental in the surrender of American force at Fort Detroit, today.
1825: The Kansa sign a treaty today.
1872: Fight @ O'Fallons Creek.
1851: One in a series of treaties with California Indians is signed today at Reading's Ranch. The treaty is designed to reserve lands and to protect the Indians.
1692: Diego de Vargas campaign
1880: Sgt.Edward Davern, with 8 soldiers from troop f, seventh cavalry, and 3 Indian scouts, attack a SIOUX war party on Box Elder Creek, in Montana. Two "hostiles" are killed, and one is wounded.
1881: Lt.Gustavus Valois, and troop i, ninth cavalry, battles 50 Indians near Cuchillo Negro, in New Mexico. Two soldiers are killed, and Lt.George R.Burnett is wounded twice. Lt. Burnett will win the Congressional Medal of Honor for his efforts in rescuing a fallen comrade. First sergeant Moses Williams, sergeant Brent Woods and private Augustus Walley, will also win the nation's highest award for their bravery in the fighting, which lasted over several hours. Several Indians are reported killed by Valois. Lt.F.B.Taylor's ninth cavalry forces have a skirmish with Indians near the Black Range, as well.
1873: A tract of land is set aside as a reservation for the CROW Indians as part of an agreement signed today.
1782: Today, 300 to 400 Indians, and a few whites, led by British Captain William Caldwell and Simon Girty, attack the settlement at Bryan's Station, near Lexington, Kentucky. John Craig is commanding the 42 Americans inside the community's fort. After several skirmishes, the Indians will eventually get tired of the fight, and leave tomorrow. While only a few of the settlers are killed in this fight, many of the survivors will die in the Battle of Blue Licks on August 19, 1782.
1806: Sacajawea & husband leave the Lewis & Clark Expedition today.
1936: According to Federal Register Number 1FR01226, today, the Government will order the purchase of land to create the Flandreau Indian Reservation in South Dakota.
1876: President Grant, by Executive Order today, corrects a survey mistake, and returns Uncompahgre Park, and some prime farm land, to the UTE Reservation.
1765: Pontiac anf the British sign a treaty
1846: According to Admiral Stockton, California is now a part of U.S.
1805: Lewis & Clark meet Sacajawea's brother.
1836: CREEK Indian, and West Point graduate, David Moniac is promoted to Captain during the SEMINOLE War. He will be killed in the fighting on November 21, 1836.
1868: 40 Kansans have been killed recently, The Governor writes the President asking for help.
1788: Losantiville (Cincinnati) is founded.
1872: Captain Lewis Thompson, reports one of his men from troop l, second cavalry, is wounded in a skirmish with Indians on the Yellowstone River, in Montana.
1862: SANTEE SIOUX attack the lower agency in Minnesota.
1854: Captain Jesse Walker attacks the MODOCs on Tule Lake. Several minor engagements will continue until the peace treaty is reached on September 4, 1854.
1865: Col.Nelson Cole, and his troops are marching from Nebraska to the Black Hills, in southwestern South Dakota. Col.Samuel Walker, and his troops, are marching from Fort Laramie, in southeastern Wyoming, to the Black hHlls. Today, their combined forces of 2000 troops meet on the Belle Fourche River. Their orders are to meet General Patrick Connor on the Rosebud River to engage the "hostiles" in the area. The soldiers' supplies are running very short.
1868: Near Pawnee Fork, in southwestern Kansas, Indians attack a wagontrain. They stop the train, but they are not able to capture it due to resistance from the passengers. Cavalry from Fort Dodge arrive the next day, and scatter the Indians. However, the Indians will return twice more. They will be unsuccessful on both occasions. Five men are wounded. The Indian casualties are estimated at 5 killed and 10 wounded.
1804: Lewis & Clark meet with the OTTOs to discuss the war with the MAHA.
1804: A treaty (7 stat. 81) is concluded today with the DELAWARE Indians at Vincennes,Indiana. The treaty explains the Indians want more money, and the Government wants a connection between the Wabash settlements, and Kentucky. The DELAWAREs will cede all of their lands between the Ohio, and the Wabash Rivers. They will also cede lands below the tract ceded by the Fort Wayne Treaty of June 7, 1803, and the road from Vincennes to the falls of the Ohio River. The tribe will get an extra $300 for ten years. They will receive $300 a year, for five years, to teach them "agricultural and domestic arts." They will get $400 worth of livestock, and $800 worth of goods now. Stolen horses will be restored to their rightful owners. The United States will negotiate with the PIANKISHAWs over lands both tribes claim. William Henry Harrison, and 5 Indians will sign the treaty.
1871: A settler is killed, and his livestock is run off by Indians, 12 miles from Fort Stanton, in central New Mexico. Troops will pursue the Indians without success.
1863: As a part of the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, Kit Carson, and General James Charlatan, were trying to starve the NAVAJOs into submission. Today, General Charlatan will put a bounty on NAVAJO livestock. Every good horse or mule would bring twenty dollars, quite a sum for those days. Each sheep would earn one dollar.
1877: NEZ PERCE Indians stage a raid at Camas Creek.
1872: Col.D.S.Stanley, and company d,f, and g, twenty-second infantry, have a skirmish with Indians at the mouth of the Powder River. After the fight, the Army will move toward O'Fallon's Creek.
1881: Lt.G.W.Smith, and 29 cavalry troopers, attack a band of "hostiles" 15 miles from McEver's ranch, in New Mexico. Five soldiers, including Lt.Smith, are killed in the fighting. A civilian volunteer, George Daly, is also killed.Boone to await reinforcements, one officer charged across the river extolling the army to follow. Many soldiers followed his lead, directly into a trap. Caldwell claimed his forces had killed, or captured 146 Americans. Boone reported his losses as 67 dead, including his own son Israel, and 7 captured. The Indian loses were 6 killed, and 10 wounded.
Every: (through the 20th) Chief Seattle Days celebration.
1746: According to some reports, a conference will be held for the next 5 days between representatives of the British in Massachuesetts and New York, and the MISSISSAUGA and "SIX NATIONS" tribes regarding alliances.
1960: On March 3, 1921, the Federal Government set aside land on the Fort Peck indian reservation, in Montana, to establish the townsite of Lodge Pole. Today, by Public Land Order number 2184, several "undisposed of" lots within the townsite are returned to tribal ownership.
1854: MINICONJOU SIOUX, named High Forehead, kills a sickly cow near Fort Laramie, in southeastern Wyoming. The cow's owner complains to the fort's commander. A brash Brevet Second Lieutenant John L.Grattan, and 30 volunteers leave the fort today to find the SIOUX involved. Grattan goes to Conquering Bear's BRULE SIOUX camp near Ash hHllow, and demands the Indian who shot the cow. Grattan makes numerous threats to the sioux, but they won't hand over High Forehead. During the parlay, a shot rings out, and Grattan's artillery gunners open fire on the camp. Conquering Bear tries to get both sides to stop shooting, but he is hit by an artillery round. Eventually, all but one of Grattan's men will be killed in the fighting.
1825: (7 stat.272) William Clark & Lewis Cass at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
1868: On Twin Buttes Creek, a group of wood choppers are attacked by approximately 30 Indians. Three of the men are killed, and all of their animals (two dozen) are taken, according to Lt.G.Lewis, fifth infantry.
1862: SANTEE SIOUX attack New Ulm, Minnesota.
1719: Joseph le Moyne, Sieur de Serigny, has assisted his brother Jean le Moyne de Bienville with his attack on Pensacola. After the battle he returns to his fortifications on Dauphin Island, Alabama. With 160 French soldiers, and 200 local Indians, he prepares for a Spanish assault. The Spanish invasion begins today. Two warships let lose a cannonade. When 100 Spaniards attempt to land, le Moyne and the Indians fight them off. The Spanish will retreat, and then give up the fight.
1830: Today, 21 CHICKASAW leaders, with their agent Benjamin Reynolds, will meet President Jackson in Franklin. They will hold a formal council in a few days to discuss Jackson's removal program.
1880: Indian scouts attack a band of "hostile" Indians north of the mouth of O'Fallon's Creek, in Montana. A dozen head of stock are recovered.
1794: Little Turtle saw how skillfully General Wayne was at organizing his forces. Knowing that this would not be like the easy encounters he had with Harmar, and St.Clair, Little Turtle suggests making peace with the whites. He will be called a coward, and Turkey Foot will take his place as War Chief. 800 warriors, including 100 CHEROKEEs are waiting for Wayne's forces near Fort Miami, near present day Toledo, Ohio. Many of the Indians have been fasting for days, to be "pure for battle." Wayne takes this into consideration, and slows his advance so they will be weaker.
1868: Comstock's ranch on Pond Creek is attacked this evening. Two men are killed, the others escape by fleeing into the Pond Creek.
1851: One in a series of treaties with California Indians is signed today at lipayuma. This treaty says it will set aside lands for the Indians and protect them from Americans.
1854: SNAKE Indians attack a wagon trail near Fort Boise, Idaho. Nine men, 2 women, and e8children will be killed.
1862: The SANTEE SIOUX engage in more fighting in Minnesota.
1877: NEZ PERCE capture 100 mules from General Oliver Howard's command at Camas Meadows, Idaho. Private Wilfred Clark, company l, second cavalry will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions today and on the 9th at the battle of Big Hole, Montana. Captain James Jackson, first cavalry, will also be awarded the Medal of Honor for retrieving the body of his trumpeter while under heavy fire. Company l farrier William H.Jones, will also receive the Medal of Honor for his gallantry during todays action, and for his efforts in the battle of May 7, 1877 against the SIOUX.
1722: According to some sources, a conference on peace and boundary lines will be held between these dates between representatives of the British in New York,Ppennsylvania and Virginia, and the "FIVE NATIONS."
1739: Accordoing to some sources, an agreement covering land cession and alliance was reached today by representatives of the British in Georgia and the CREEKs.
1689: Indians attack Ft.Charles.
1680: Spanish leave Santa Fe.
1971: Southwestern Indian Polytechnical Institute is opened today in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
1869: Military guards repel an attack by Indians on the Coyote Station, Kansas. No casualties are sustained on either side.
1805: A treaty (7 stat.91) is concluded today with the DELAWARE, MIAMI, EEL RIVER, WEA, and POTAWATOMI Nations, at Grouseland, near Vincennes, Indiana. The treaty refers to the treaty of August 18, 1804. The DELAWAREs will cede lands to the MIAMIs. The MIAMIs cede lands along the Ohio River from the Kentucky River to Fort Recovery, on the western Ohio-Indiana line. Each tribe will receive the following payments per year, for the next ten years: MIAMIs-$600, EEL RIVERs-$250, WEAs-$250, POTAWATOMIs-$500. The treaty will also address several inter-tribal issues. The document will be signed by William Henry Harrison, and 19 Indians.
1806: Lewis & Clark return to the RICARA village.
1847: PILLAGER BAND of CHIPPEWA treaty.
1872: Today, and tomorrow, Col.D.S.Stanley, and companies d,f, and g, twenty-second infantry, fight with Indians along O'Fallon's Creek in Montana.
1871: Treaty Number Two (Manitoba Post Treaty), is concluded between the Canadian Government, and the CHIPPEWA. They sell 35,700 square miles of land, in exchange for certain reservation lands, an annuity, schools and other items.
1861: John Ross has called for a meeting to be held at Tahlequah, to discuss the American Civil War. 4,000 CHEROKEEs attend the meeting today. It is decided that a united CHEROKEE Nation was the best policy, so they vote to side with the Confederacy. The CHEROKEE will sign a treaty with the Confederacy in October.
1710: According to some sources, a land cession agreement is reached today between representatives of the British in New York and the MOHAWK Indains.
1670: Today, Hiacoomes will preach his first sermon to his people on Martha's Vineyard, today.
1694: According to some sources, a peace conference will be held between representatives of the "FIVE NATIONS" and British Colonies in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania.
1777: After maintaining a siege on Fort Stanwix, near modern Rome, New York, since August 3rd, today, British and Indian forces will abandon the siege. The Indian forces had been disheartened by rumors that General Benedict Arnold was leading a force of superior numbers to relieve the siege.
1860: HUNKPAPAs & BLACKFEET vandalize Ft.Union.
1851: One in a series of treaties is signed today with California Indians at the Russian Camp (Camp Fernando Felix). This treaty promises to protect the Indians from angry Europeans, and to reserve them lands.
1749: Today, Pennsylvania authorities will sign an agreement to purchase a large parcel of land between the Delaware and the Susquehanna Rivers from the IROQUOIS, DELAWAREs and the SHOMOKIN tribes. This purchase will include most of modern-day Carbon, Columbia, Dauphin, Lebanon, Luzerne, Monroe, Northumberland, Pike, Schuylkill, and Wayne Counties in Pennsylvania.
1872: The SIOUX fight the Army under Stanley near O'Fallon Creek.
1883: The Dawes Commission is sent to Dakota Territory to determine if the methods used to obtain SIOUX signatures on a land ceding treaty were fair. Today, Sitting Bull will address the commission at the Standing Rock Agency. The commissioners will treat Sitting Bull as any other SIOUX. Sitting Bull will be offended for not being treated as a great leader. He will lead the SIOUX out of the meeting. Eventually, he will be convinced by fellow SIOUX that he was not insulted, and he would meet with the commission a second time. This time it is the commissioners who are offended. Their efforts are to mold the Indians into white men. Sitting Bull will not accept this attitude.
1830: Meeting with Secretary of War Eaton, and Jim Coffee, CHICKASAW leaders are told that the Federal Government cannot protect them from state laws. The Indians are informed that their only hope comes in moving to the Indian Territory. The Government offers to pay for the removal, support them for a year, and give them new land. The CHICKASAW will discuss the issue for a week.
1877: The NEZ PERCE enter Yellowstone Park.
1862: Today, 800 SANTEE SIOUX will attack Fort Ridgely, in south-central Minnesota. The fort is defended by approximately 150 soldiers, and two dozen volunteers. The SIOUX will sneak up to the fort, and try to set fire to it. When the SIOUX attacked, the Army responded with an artillery barrage. Little Crow will be wounded in the fighting, and Mankato will take over. The artillery will make the difference in the fighting, and the SIOUX will retreat.
1874: Under the new authority to pursue "hostiles" on reservations, Lt.Col.J.W.Davidson, and troops e,h, and l, tenth cavalry, and company i, twenty-fifth infantry, from Fort Sill, in southern Indian Territory (Oklahoma), enter the Wichita Agency. On this date, they engage COMANCHEs and KIOWAs, who have taken refuge with "friendly" Indians on the reservation. Four soldiers are wounded in the fighting. Sixteen Indians are killed or wounded. The "hostiles" attempt to burn the agency, but the soldiers prevent this.
1862: The SANTEE SIOUX engae in another fight.
1868: The stage to cheyenne wells returns after being chased by 30 Indians. The Denver stagecoach is attacked between Pond Creek and Lake Station, Colorado according to Captain Bankhead, fifth infantry, commander of Fort Wallace, in western Kansas.
1868: According to army reports, indians attack settlers in north Texas, and 8 people are killed, and 300 cattle are stolen. Bent's Fort, in the Texas panhandle, reports an Indian attack nets 15 horses and mules, and 4 head of cattle stolen.
1732: Today will mark the beginning of a peace conference held in Philadelphia with the local Indians. Attending the meeting will be several IROQUOIS Chiefs, including ONONDAGA Chief Shikellamy, and By God, I'm for battle, no peace!"
1868: Near Bent's Fort, 3 stage coaches and 1 wagon train are attacked by Indians.
1869: For his actions on July 8, 1869, Mad Bear will receive the Congressional Medal of Honor today.
1834: After the CHCICKASAW Head Chief Levi Colbert dies, the CHICKASAW Council today votes to replace him with James Colbert.
1816: William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian Edwards, and representative of the POTAWATOMI, CHIPPEWA & OTTAWA tribes signed a treaty today in Saint Louis. The Indians would receive annuities for land giveaways. They would be allowed to peacefully hunt on their old lands as long as they remained in the hands of the Government.
1818: The QUAPAW Indians sign a treaty coverning the Arkansas and Red Rivers.
1781: Joseph Brant, and his MOHAWK warriors, trips an ambush against the Pennsylvania militia, led by Archibald Lochry, in Indiana, on the Ohio River. Brant routs the militia.
1835: The United States signs a treaty with 8 different nations, today.
1853: General Lane, and approximately 200 troops, find some ROGUE RIVER Indians. A fight will ensue near Table Rock.
1856: 80 CHEYENNE will attack a mail train near Fort Kearny, in southern Nebraska, today.
1877: The Cabinet votes to send a commission to talk with Sitting Bull a Ft.Walsh.
1856: Captain G.H.Stuart, and 41 soldiers from Fort Kearny, in southern Nebraska, catch up to the CHEYENNE who attacked the mail trail yesterday. The Army kills 10 Indians in the fight.
1856: CHEYENNE attack 4 wagons led by the Secretary of Utah, A.W.Babbitt, on Cottonwood Creek. Two men, and one child are killed, and a woman is kidnapped. Babbitt was transporting money and goods for the Mormon Church.
1636: Boston sends an expedition to Block Island.
1828: The United States signs treaties with 5 different Indian Nations, today.John moran, company f, will be awarded the congressional medal of honor.
1782: Brant continues attacks.
1737: A agreement will be signed today by Thomas Penn and MUNSEE Chiefs Manawkyhickon and Nutimus. The agreement will call for Indian lands to be sold along the Delaware river for the distance that a man could walk in a day and a half. This would be called the "Walking Purchase" and would be performed on September 19, 1737.
1835: The CREEKs write President Jackson telling him they are ready to move west, but they need to sell their land to afford to go. They want the money promised them by treaty.
1862: New Ulm, Minnnesota is evacuated due to the SANTEE SIOUX uprising.
1868: Acting Governor Hall of Colorado telegraphs to the military that 200 Indians are "devastating southern Colorado". The military also receives a report of Indians killing an animal herder near Fort Dodge, in southwestern Kansas.
1877: The NEZ PERCE camp just north of Yellowstone Lake.
1876: General Crook,and his soldiers, leave General Alfred "One Star" Terry. They will go east
1872: A sergeant, 6 soldiers, and 2 REE Indian scouts, are 12 miles from Fort McKeen (later Fort Abraham Lincoln), in central North Dakota, when they are attacked by over 100 SIOUX. According to Army reports, the 2 REE Indian scouts are killed in the fighting.
1756: Today, DELAWARE Indians will stage a series of attacks along the Maryland-Pennsylvania border. Near the Salisbury Plains, 39 British will be killed. In other fighting in the area of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, a little over 20 soldiers and settlers will be killed.
1872: Today, Sergeant Benjamin Brown, company c, twenty-fourth infantry, and 4 soldiers will "defeat a superior force" of local Indians at Davidson Canyon, near Camp Crittenden, Arizona. Brown will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1868: According to a report filed by Captain Henry C. Bankhead, commander Fort Wallace, in western Kansas, several citizens have been killed by Indians in the last few days near Sheridan (near modern day Winona) and Lake Station, Colorado. Soldiers escorting a stagecoach near Cheyenne Wells were able to fight off an Indian attack. 250 Indians' presence made Captain Edmond Butler, fifth infantry, and his wagon train, return to Big Springs. Acting Governor Hall, of Colorado, again telegraphs the President that ARAPAHOs are killing settlers all over southern Colorado. In a separate report, Lt.F.H.Beecher, third infantry, reports two experienced scouts were shot in the back by Indians who had pretended to be friends. One survives by using the other's dead body as a shield.
1869: According to an Indian taken prisoner after the Battle on Prairie Dog creek, in Kansas, on September 26, 1869, on this date Pawnee Killer and Whistler's SIOUX attack a surveying party about 20 miles south of the Platte River.
1832: Black Hawk surrenders.
1735: According to some sources, a peace agreement is reached today between representatives of the British in Massachusetts Colony and the "IROQUOIS of Canada."
1878: Captain James Egan, and troop k, second cavalry, are following a group of BANNOCKs, who have been stealing livestock along the Madison River. Near Henry's Lake, Captain Egan's forces skirmish with the BANNOCKs, and recover 56 head of livestock. The escaping BANNOCKs are starting to follow the trail taken by the NEZ PERCE, last year.
Every: Spanish & Indian fiestas in ISLETA PUEBLO.
1686: DELAWARE Indians sell land near Lehigh River.
1833: Ft MaCkensie battle.
1784: Father Serra dies.
1676: The Last Indian surrenders in the King Philip's War.
1565: Today, leading an expedition of 1,500 soldiers and colonists, Pedro Menendez de Aviles lands on the coast of Florida. His mission is to defeat the protestants in the area, and to claim the land for Spain. Next month he will establish the town of St.Augustine.
1868: Near Kiowa Station, Indians kill 3 men and steal 50 head of cattle. Kiowa Station Keeper Stickney is also attacked and wounded while driving a wagon. The station keeper at Reed's Spring is also attacked and driven off by Indians.
1857: Ft.Abercrombie is established as an outpost against the SIOUX.
1836: John campbell, United States Commissioner to the CREEKs, signs a contract with Opothleyaholo, and other "friendly" CREEK leaders today. Campbell realizes the CREEKs need money to move to Indian Territory, and to satisfy their debts in alabama. The Government will give the CREEKs their $31,900 annuity in advance, so they can pay their debts. The CREEKs agree to provide 600 to 1000 warriors to fight the SEMINOLEs. The CREEKs will serve until the SEMINOLEs surrender totally. The CREEKs will get to keep any "plunder" they can find.
1645: The United Colonies of Massachusetts have decided to raise an army to fight the NARRAGANSETT Indians after the NARRAGANSETTs start fighting with the MOHEGANs, English allies. Fearing the superior force of the English, the NARRAGANSETTs agree to a peace treaty. The treaty will give the English all of the PEQUOT lands that the NARRAGANSETTs had appropriated after the Treaty of Hartford of September 21, 1638. Some sources state this happened on August 27, 1645.
1942: Today, according to Federal Register Number 7FR07458, the SHOSHONE and ARAPAHO tribes of the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, will get back a small part of the lands they ceded to the United States in 1905.
1879: According to Government sources, Indians have set numerous fires in the mountains west of Hot Sulphur Springs, Colorado. The fires will rage out-of-control for some time.
1754: According to some reports an agreement on friendship andd land cessions is reached today by representatives of the British in North Carolina and the CATAWBA Indians.
1956: According to Federal Register Number 21FR6681, lands which were originally set aside to be townsites within the FLATHEAD Indian Reservation in Montana, and were "undisposed of", will be returned to the tribal ownership of the Confederated SALISH and KOOTENAI tribes on the Flathead Reservation.
1758: The First State Indian reservation, in New Jersey, is established today.
1796: Today, in a speech directed to the CHEROKEEs, President Washington announces his decision to appoint Colonel Benjamin Hawkins as the "First General or Principal Agent for all four southern Nations of Indians."
1779: The "Battle of Newton" near modern-day Elmira, New York, took place today. General John Sullivan, and 4,500 soldiers are part of a major expedition to defeat the IROQUOIS, and the British in New York. British Major John Cutler, and MOHAWK Chief Joseph Brant command a British and Indian force of 600 warriors and soldiers. Being vastly outnumbered, the British and Indians forces will give up the field to the Americans. Even though the battle lasted several hours, only 5 Americans, 5 British and 12 Indians would be killed.
1858: Captains McLane and Lucero, with Indian Agent Yost, and approximately 60 men, are on an expedition to Fort Defiance, in northwestern Arizona, against the NAVAJOs. Working on a deadline, the NAVAJOs have failed to produce the murderer who killed a negro boy at the fort on July 12, 1858. At Bear Springs, the soldiers encounter a NAVAJO camp, and they strike. Several Indians are killed in the fighting. The soldiers then move on to Fort Defiance.
1821: Today, lewis cass and Solomon Sibley will sign a treaty with the CHIPPEWA, OTTAWA, POTAWATOMI Indians in Chicago, Illinois. The Indians will give up lands in southwestern Michigan.
1865: The Army and Indians fight along the Powder River.
1868: According to Captain William H.Penrose, third infantry, commander of Fort Lyon in southeastern Colorado, Indians attacked 13 wagons 18 miles from the Arkansas River. The whites escape to Fort Lyon, but the oxen are killed and the train is destroyed.
1829: WINNEBAGOs give up lands near the rock river and the wisconsin river for $18,000 a year. Signed at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
1759: Today, MOHEGAN Samson Occom will be ordained as a minister by the Suffolk Presbytery of Long Island, New York. While living with Rev.Eleazar Wheelock, he had studied numerous foreign languages, including Hebrew and Greek. Eventually, he would be sent to England to help raise funds for Wheelock's Indian "Charity" School. Occom would be the first Indian Minister to deliver a sermon in England. His fund-raising efforts would be so outstanding that Wheelock's School could afford to move to New Hampshire, and would eventually become Dartmouth College.
1645: Today, a peace treaty between the Dutch, led by Willem Kieft, and several local tribes will be signed at Fort Orange, in modern-day Albany. This treaty would conclude a protracted conflict in the area.
1858: Oshkosh was a NEMOMINEE Chief. During his lifetime he fought in many conflicts including for the British in the war of 1812, and for the Americans in Black Hawk's War. He was appointed as the Chief of the MENOMINEEs by Lewis Cass during the negotiations of the Treaty of Butte des Morts. After surviving battles with the Europeans and other Indians, Oshkosh met his end due to a more insidious enemy, alcohol. He was killed during a drunken fight on this date.
1690: A combined force of British, YAMASSEE and YUCHI Indians attack the Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara in northern Florida, today. Many TIMUCUA indians in the area have been converted to Christianity or are loyal to the Franciscan monks. All of the TIMUCUA Indians at the mission will be killed in the fighting.
1813: The "Red Sticks", the anti-whites faction of the CREEKs, attack Fort Mims, just north of Mobile, Alabama, on Lake Tensaw. 800 Red Stick CREEKs warriors (some estimates range between 400 and a 1,000), led by Chiefs Peter McQueen and William Weatherford (Lume Chathi - Red Eagle), rush into the open fort, today at noon, and kill 107 soldiers, and 260 civilians, including 100 negro slaves. The fort commander, Major Daniel Beasley, had done a poor job of preparing the fort for the CREEK War. This laxity led to the success of the CREEK attack. The defenders were brutally attacked and only a few Americans would escape. The defense of the fort was led by militia Captain Dixon Bailey, a half-blood CREEK. Bailey would die in the fighting. During the five hour battle, between 36 and 100 Red Stick CREEKs would be killed according to different sources.
1831: The treaty of Miami Bay, Ohio is signed by the OTTAWAs & James Gardiner. Cede lands around the Miami & Auglaize Rivers & agree to move just west of the Mississippi River.
1686: According to a alleged copy of a deed dated today, DELAWARE Chiefs Mayhkeerickkishsho, Sayhoppy, and Taughhoughsey, will sell lands along the Delaware River to William Penn. The deed specified that the land would encompass the distance a man could walk in a day and a half. A copy of this deed was found by Thomas Penn in 1734. The implementation of this deed would be called "The Walking Purchase." The walk, was started on September 19, 1737. The manner in which it was done would lead to recriminations on both side.
1841: Today KIOWAs will skirmish with the Texas-Santa Fe Expedition near the pease river. KIOWA War Chief Adalhabakia will be killed in the fighting.
1819: The KICKAPOO sign a treaty today.
1838: Today, CHOCTAW Chief Mushulatubbe will die near Choctaw Agency today from smallpox.
1874: Colonel Nelson Miles, eight troops of the sixth cavalry, four companies from the fifth infantry, and a section of artillery encounter "hostiles" on the Washita Agency in Indian Territory. The opposing forces stage a running battle for several days, until they are defeated 8 miles from the Salt Fork of the Red River.
1881: Col.Eugene Carr has attempted to arrest a WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE shamen, named Nakaaidoklini for preaching a disruptive faith. The Indian scouts revolt; and, fight a battle with Carr at Cibicue Creek. Carr will sustain significant losses, and Nakaidoklini will be killed in the fighting. Sergeant Alonzo Bowman and private Richard Heartery, company d, sixth cavalry, and First Lieutenant William H.Carter will be awarded a Congressional Medals of Honor for "conspicuous and extraordinary bravery in attacking mutinous scouts."
1856: CHEYENNE & ARAPAHO attack a wagon train 80 miles from Fort Kearney, Nebraska. One man is killed, and one child is kidnapped.
1700: According to some sources, an agreement is reached today regarding friendship, religion and trade between representatives of the British in New York and the "FIVE NATIONS."
1778: WAPPINGER Indian Chief, Daniel Nimham, will be killed today fighting with American forces in the Revolutionary War battle at Kingsbridge. At the time of his death he had been Chief for almost 38 years. While he sided with the British in the French and Indian War, English authorities would not help him retrieve lands appropriated by settlers in New York along the Hudson River. Nimham (sometimes spelled Ninham) and his warriors would fight on the American side during the revolution.
1715: After a history of occasional skirmishes, today, at the urging of Europeans living in Pennsylvania, the CONESTOGAs and the CATAWBA tribes agree to sign a peace treaty. They agree to stop fighting among themselves.
1666: MOHAWK Chief Agariata is attending a peace conference in Quebec between the IROQUOIS and the French. Governor Alexandre de Proville asks, during a dinner, if anyone knew who had killed his son a few months ago. Agariata brags that he did it. The governor becomes so angry, he has Agariata seized, and hung today. This would end the peace process. Governor de Proville would lead french troops against the MOHAWKs, himself.
1873: Captain T.A.Baldwin, and troops e, and i, tenth cavalry, are attacked by an Indian war party, near Pease River, in Texas. According to Army reports, 1 Indian is wounded.
1876: President Grant, by Executive Order Number 1221 today, adds to the Gila River Reserve for the PIMA & MARICOPA Indians, in the Pima Agency. This reserve was established on February 28, 1859.
1822: Osage treaty.
1735: Former Yale College tutor, John Sergeant is ordained as the missionary to the local Indians at Deerfield, Massachusetts, today.
1905: Today, Ely Samuel Parker (Donehogawa) dies in New York City. During his lifetime he will be a SENECA Chief, an engineer, a lawyer, the New York City Building Superintendent, a Brigadier General in the Civil War where he will write the surrender papers signed at Appomattox, and the first Indian Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Born in 1828, he will be buried in Buffalo, New York.
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