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July




July 2nd
  • 1754: According to some reports, a peace agreement is reached today by representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the NORRIDGEWOCK Indians.
  • 1791: The treaty (7 stat.39) with the CHEROKEE Nation is concluded today on the Holston River at White's Fort, modern day Knoxville Tennessee. The CHEROKEE acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States. Prisoners will be restored on both sides. Boundary lines will be officially established. American citizens will be allowed to use a road from the Washington District, to the Mero District on the Tennessee River without molestation. The United States will have the sole right to regulate trade with the CHEROKEE. No whites can live, or hunt on CHEROKEE lands, without CHEROKEE approval. Annual payments will increase from $1000, to $1500 on February 17, 1792. The treaty is signed by 39 Chiefs, 1200 other CHEROKEEs will attend the meeting. This will be known as the "Holston River Treaty." The Americans will be represented by Governor William Blount.
  • 1874: Custer leads a "science expedition" out of Ft. Lincoln into the Black Hills.
  • 1833: 1600 CREEK War Indian prisoners leave Fort Mitchell, Alabama, near Columbus, Georgia, en route to the west, in chains, and manacles. They are guarded by 300 troops.
  • 1676: Today, European and Indian forces under Major John Talcott will attack a NARRAGANSETT village, as a part of King Philip's War. 171 of the NARRAGANSETTs will be killed in the fighting.
  • 1781: Near Fort Herkimer, in the Mohawk Valley of New York, Lt. Solomon Woodworth, and 50 militiamen are attacked by a large Indian war party. Only 15 of the Europeans will escape. Of the remainder, only ten were captured.
  • 1885: Big Bear surrenders (Riel Rebellion).
  • 1742: 7/12/1742 According to some reports, a conference regarding land cessions, trade and the removal of squaters on indians lands is held for the next 11 days between representatives of the British in Pennsylvania and Maryland colonies and the DELAWARE, NANTICOKE, SHAWNEE and "SIX NATIONS" tribes.
  • 1871: Indians attack Fort Larned, in southwestern Kansas, today. There are no reported casualties on either side, according to Army records.
  • 1861: DELAWARE treaty
  • 1863: EASTERN SHOSHONE treaty
  • 1543: Today, the remnants of de Soto's expedition, numbering a little over 300 Spaniards, led by Luis de Moscoso, board ships in the Indian village of Aminoya to sail down the Mississippi River, to Mexico. They had spent six months in this village at the confluence of the Mississippi and the Arkansas Rivers.
  • 1868: Gall signs the Great SIOUX Reservation treaty today @ Ft.Rice.
  • 1744: Today, and agreement will be signed between IROQUOIS representatives, and Maryland Government officials ceding most of the IRIQUOIS lands in Maryland.
  • 1876: After a slow retreat from the scene of custer's defeat, the wounded had to be moved slowly, general alfred terry's main body of troops reaches the yellowstone river and camps.
  • 1956: Today, according to federal register number 21fr05067, mineral rights on reservation land in wyoming will be restored to tribal ownership......................
  • 1836: An act of congress, on this date, allows for more government organized CHOCTAW Indian removal. The CREEKs have been causing problems for the government in Alabama, and Mississippi. This Act is passed hoping to remove the 7000 CHOCTAWs still in Mississippi, so they will not exacerbate the problems with the CREEKs. The 1830 treaty allowed any CHOCTAWs remaining in Mississippi, after the initial removals, to become citizens of that state.


    July 3rd
  • 1693: According to some sources, a two day peace conference will be held by representatives of the "FIVE NATIONS" and the British in New York, today.
  • 1920: The "trust period on allotments to KICKAPOO Indians on the KICKAPOO Reservation in Kansas" will be extended today.
  • 1833: United States Marshal Jeremiah Austill arrives at Fort Mitchell, today. He is there on the Alabama-Georgia border to get troops to remove white squatters in CREEKk lands in Alabama. His efforts will prove fruitless as Alabama militia volunteers will side with the squatters.
  • 1869: Today, according to Army records, members of the eighth cavalry will engage local "hostiles" in a fight in Hell Canyon, Arizona. First Sergeant Sanford Bradbury and Corporals Paul Haupt and John Mitchell, company l, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "conspicuous gallantry in action."
  • 1843: CHEROKEE-CREEK-OSAGE covenant is signed today.
  • 1862: A civil war battle takes place today near Locust Grove, Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Indians will fight on both sides in the battle led by Union Colonel William Weer, and Confederate colonels John Drew and Stand Watie. The Union forces will win the engagement and many of Drew's Indians will willingly surrender.
  • 1837: General Ellis Wool is charged by the New Echota treaty with protecting the CHEROKEEs against those who would attack them. To prevent the problems associated with whites selling alcohol to the CHEROKEEs, General Wool prohibits the sale of liquor to CHEROKEEs in Alabama. Today, General Wool will be charged, by the State of Alabama, with the crime of interfering with local laws, and disturbing the peace. Wool would face a court marshal but not one would testify against him, so he was acquitted of all charges.
  • 1863: After the end of the SANTEE SIOUX uprising, Little Crow leaves the area. Eventually he returns to steal horses and supplies so he, and his followers can survive. On this day, near Hutchinson, Minnesota, Little Crow and his son stop to pick some berries. Minnesota has recently enacted a law which pays a bounty of $25 for every SIOUX scalp. Some settlers see Little Crow, and they open fire. Little Crow will be mortally wounded. His killer would get a bonus bounty of 500 dollars. Little Crow's scalp would go on public display in St.Paul. Little Crow's son, Wowinapa, will escape, but he will later be captured in Dakota Territory.
  • 1676: Over 400 Europeans and Indians, under Major John Talford, will attack a band of Potuck's NARRAGANSETTs as they attempt to surrender. After the fighting, 67 NARRAGANSETTs will have been killed or captured.
  • 1868: (15 stat.673) This treaty will create the Wind River Reservation for the SHOSHONE and ARAPAHO tribes. It will cover 2,828 square miles of Wyoming and will be occupied by the Northern ARAPAHO and Eastern SHOSHONE.
  • 1778: Today a force of American militia, led by Zebulon Butler, will embark on an expedition into the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania from "Forty Fort". Iroquois warriors will lure the army into an ambush in a swamp. Almost 400 of the soldiers will be captured or killed during the fighting. This fight will be one of many called the "Wyoming Disaster".
  • 1754: Surrounded by 500 French and 400 Indian forces under Sieur Coulon de Villiers, George Washington has only 400 soldiers at his Fort Necessity, near modern-day Farmington, in southwestern Pennsylvania. After his artillery is put out of action, and with half of his men as casualties, Washington accepts de Villiers offer of surrender. Washington would lead his troops back to Virginia. De Villiers is the brother of Jumonville de Villiers, Washington's counterpart in the battle not far from here on May 28th. Jumonville was killed in that battle.


    July 4th
  • 1648: Father Antoine Daniel is killed by IROQUOIS, today, at Teanaustaye, Canada.
  • 1687: French General, Marquis de Denonville, Jacques Rene de Brisay, leads a force of 3,000 French and Indian soldiers against the SENECA village of Totiakton, today. Located in modern Monroe County, New York, Brisay's forces will defeat a SENECA force of less than 500 warriors. The allies will destroy the town, and the surrounding fields.
  • 1710: 7/10/1710 According to some sources, a conference aimed at reaching an alliance between the British in New York and the "FIVE NATIONS" and the OTTAWA is started today. It will be concluded on July 10th.
  • 1777: Today, the SHAWNEEs will attack Boonesborough, again. Similar to their last incursion on April 15th, the town's fortification will prove to be too substantial for them to breech.
  • 1778: After yesterday's defeat by a vastly superior force in a nearby swamp, Americans in Forty Fort in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania surrender.
  • 1778: Today, George Rogers Clark, and almost 200 Americans, will defeat the British and Indian forces at Kaskaskia, Illinois
  • 1805: One year ago, Presbyterian Minister Gideon Blackburn opened a school for CHEROKEE children in the Overhill villages. Today he will provide a demonstration by his "little CHEROKEEs". Before an audience of CHEROKEE Chiefs and Governor John Sevier, the children will show their ability to read and write in English, and to do math. Both the CHEROKEEs and the whites would be greatly impressed by the presentation.
  • 1805: Today, a treaty with the WYANDOT, and six other Indian nations, will be concluded at Fort Industry, on the Miami River, in western Ohio. The treaty will make references to the Greenville treaty. A new boundary line will be established. The Indians will split $825 from the United States, and $125 from the Connecticut Land Company, annually, for 500,00 acres of land south of Lake Erie (called "Sufferers Land"). The Indians will be allowed to hunt, and fish, in their old lands, if they do so peacefully. The treaty is signed by 32 Indians.
  • 1827: After the death of tribal Chief Path Killer, CHEROKEE leaders will meet today to pick a successor.
  • 1866: The Delaware sign a treaty with the United States today.
  • 1874: Captain A.E.Bates, and troop b, second cavalry, and 160 "friendly" SHOSHONEs, are en route from Camp Brown, in west central Wyoming, looking for a reported gathering of hostile NORTHERN CHEYENNE and ARAPAHOs, when they discover a large group of "hostiles" on the Bad Water Branch of the Wind River, in Wyoming. During the battle, 26 "hostiles", and 4 soldiers are killed. Twenty Indians, and 6 soldiers, including Lt.R.H.Young, are wounded. 230 horses are captured. After this fight, many "hostile" NORTHERN CHEYENNE and ARAPAHOs were convinced to return to their agencies to avoid further battles.
  • 1876: Telegraph signals begive to spread the story today of the battle at the Little Big Horn.
  • 1877: For the next two days, the NEZ PERCE will engage in several skirmishes with the local settlers and the Army in the Camas rairie area of Idaho north of Tolo Lake & Grangeville. Almost two dozen whites will be killed in the fighting.
  • Every: The following events are held: Nambe Falls Ceremonial, PAWNEE powwow, SALISH-KOTENAI powwow, QUAPAW powwow


    July 5TH
  • 1652: According to some sources, a land cession treaty was reached today between representatives of the SUSQUEHANNOCK Indians and the Maryland Colonies.
  • 1697: According to some sources, a land cession agreement is reached today between representatives of the DELAWARE and Pennsylvania.
  • 1754: According to some reports, a peace agreement is reached today by representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the PENOBSCOT Indians.
  • 1796: A treaty agreement was signed on June 29th. Today, the conference will finally come to an end, with all negotiations and explanations at an end.
  • 1831: N. William Colquhoun is appointed Special Sgent to the CHOCTAWs today, by Secretary of War, Lewis Cass. Colquhoun is ordered to go to the CHOCTAW Nation and consult with their leaders about their removal to Indian Territory.
  • 1866: The SNAKE Treaty of August 12, 1865 is ratified today.
  • 1869: Major W.B.Royall, fifth cavalry, commanding three fifth cavalry troops and one company of PAWNEE scouts, comes across an Indian war party just north of the Republican River. Three Indians are killed, and several are wounded. The troops then return to Gen. Eugene Carr's camp on the Republican.
  • 1871: Arrested for murdering the wagon drivers in the raid on May 18th, KIOWAs Satana and Big Tree go on trial today in Jacksboro, in north-central Texas, near Fort Richardson. They will be found guilty after three days of testimony. Satanta tells the court, "If you let me go, I will withdrawn my warriors from Tehanna, but if you kill me, it will be a spark on the prairie. Make big fire-burn heap." Although sentenced to be hanged, the Texas Governor, fearing a KIOWA uprising, decides to commute the sentences to life in a Texas prison. Eventually, Big Tree and Satanta will be freed. Later, Satanta will be returned to prison, where he will commit suicide by jumping off a prison balcony on October 11, 1874.
  • 1873: A tract of land is set aside as a reserve for "GROSS VENTRE, PIEGAN, BLOOD, BLACKFEET, RIVER CROW and other Indians" in Montana by Oxecutive Order today.
  • 1994: Today, SANDY LAKE BAND of MISSISSIPI OJIBWE Chief, Clifford Skinaway, Sr. Dies. His tribe has been embroiled in a jurisdictional dispute with the MILLE LACS BAND of CHIPPEWA.


    July 6th
  • 1534: Cartier meets MICMACs in Cahleur Bay.
  • 1694: Today will mark the first detailed conference between the pennsylvania government, and the Indians of the region. The meeting will be attended by many tribes living in the Pennsylvania area, including the SUSQUEHANNA, and the DELEWARE.
  • 1754: Today, IROQUOIS leaders will deed over to the British, lands west of the Susquehanna from Penn's Creek to the Blue Mountains. This treaty will be a part of the Albany, New York conference.
  • 1758: Preliminary meetings on the Easton treaty are held today.
  • 1792: CREEK Chief Alexander McGillivray will repudiate the treaty he signed in New York on August 7, 1970, with the United States. Today, he signs a peace treaty with Spain, and agree to fight the United States to reclaim the ancestral CREEK lands held by the United States.
  • 1820: The OTTAWA & CHIPPEWA sign a treaty with the United States today.
  • 1825: The CHEYENNE sign a "friendship" treaty today with the United States.
  • 1875: Sergeant Arthur Danvers, and 11 men of company g, first infantry are stationed at the PONCA Agency, in Dakota Territory. Approximately 200 SIOUX attack the compound. Utilizing and old piece of artillery, the soldiers drive off the SIOUX, after three attacks.
  • 1883: President Grant, by Executive Order today, establishes the yuma reserve in the MISSION TULE Agency, in California. The reservation will cover 74.75 square miles, and be the home for the YUMA APACHE tribe. The reserve will be modified by an order on August 15, 1894. The reservation will be cancelled entirely by another order on January 9, 1884.


    July 7th
  • 1540: Coronado attacks Hawikuh today.
  • 1550: A Conference on Indians is held today in Spain.
  • 1666: Robert Sanford has been exploring the coast of South Carolina for a colony site. He has found some friendly Indians at Port Royal. Today he sets sail for Barbados with the nephew of the local Chief. The Chief wants his nephew to learn the white man's ways and language. Dr. Henry Woodward will stay with the Indians and learn their ways, thus making him the first European settler in South Carolina. Woodward would eventually become the preeminent Indian agent in South Carolina.
  • 1716: The Mission of Nuestra Senora de la Purisima Concepcion is established for the HAINAI Indians, today.
  • 1742: To retaliate for an attack on St.Augustine by English from Georgia, Spanish Florida Governor Manuel Montiano will stage an attack today on St.Simons Island in Georgia. Montiano's force of almost 3,000 will consist of Spaniards and YAMASSEE Indians. Forces under James Oglethorpe will surprise the Spaniards. After killing 40 YAMASSEEs and 160 Spaniards, Oglethorpes force, consisting of English, CHICKASAWs, CREEKs and YAMACRAWs, will force the Spaniards off the island.
  • 1836: According to government records, Jim Henry, one of the wiliest of the leaders of the CREEK Indian War, will surrender to Indians fighting for the government, today. Henry will eventually become a Methodist Minister, and change his name to McHenry.
  • 1846: Admiral Sloat claims California for U.S. today.
  • 1875: Lt.G.H.Wright, and men from company g, seventh infantry, pursue a group of 50 Indians, who have just stolen a small herd of horses near Camp Lewis, near Lewiston, Montana. The soldiers surprise the Indians, and recover 7 of the horses, before they withdraw.
  • 1876: Lt.F.W.Sibley, and 25 soldiers, and a few civilians, are scouting in the Big Horn Mountains near the Little Big Horn river. They encounter a great number of Indians. After a fight, Sibley, and company, abandon their horses, and escape on foot to General Crook's camp.


    July 8th
  • 1539: The Ulloa Expedition takes place today.
  • 1608: Champlain founds Quebec.
  • 1755: Today, a SHAWNEE war party will stage a series of raids in Draper's Meadows, near modern day Blackburn, virginia. They will kill 5 settlers, and capture several others. They will give a female settler a bag with the head of one of the male settlers in it. One of the captives, Mary Ingles, will eventually from the SHAWNEE. Her trek across over 500 miles of the wilderness to return to her home became a legend among the Americans.
  • 1762: CHEROKEE Chiefs Ostenaco, Pouting Pigeon and Stalking Turkey will have an audience with King George III in London, today. This will satisfy Ostenaco's desire to see "the Great White Father across the sea."
  • 1776: Today, CHEROKEEs prepare to attack the British by having a special ceremony in which the drink the "black drink" prepared from the yaupon bush.
  • 1817: Today, some CHEROKEEs will sign a treaty which will cede lands in Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee for lands on the Arkansas and White Rivers next to the lands held by the OSAGE. They would represent a minority group among the CHEROKEEs; but, Washington would press the treaty. Andrew Jackson would represent American interests.
  • 1852: The United States repudiates the treaties signed by California & California Indians.
  • 1869: Corporal John Kyle, and three troop m, fifth cavalrymen are returning to Gen.Carr's camp when they are attacked by Indians near the Republican River in Kansas. While wounding 2 Indians, Cor.Kyle is able to lead his men back to the camp. Later that night, Indians attempt to stampede the camp's horses. One of Carr's PAWNEE scouts Co-rux-the-chod-ish (Mad Bear) is wounded, but the stampede attempt will fail. Mad Bear will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his action. He was accidently wounded by one of the soldiers. Corporal Kyle will also be given the medal of honor.
  • 1873: Starting today and continuing for the next 3 days, members of the eighth cavalry from Fort Selden, New Mexico, will fight local Indians. For "service against hostile Indians," First Sergeant James Morris, Sergeant Leonidas Lytle, corporal Frank Bratling, private Henry Wills and blacksmith John Sheerin, company c, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
  • 1878: General Oliver O.Howard has joined up with Captain Throckmorton, and Captain Reuben Bernard, at Pilot Rock, in oregon. Howard's scouts sight BANNOCK Indians near Birch Creek, in northeastern Oregon. The soldiers attack. Fighting up a series of parallel ridges, the Army dislodges the Indians. The soldiers liken the fight to Missionary Ridge, in the Civil War. One soldier is killed, and the Army reports an unknown number of Indians are also killed. Captain Miles will lead the pursuit of the Indians.
  • 1940: Today, by Executive Order Number 8471 and 8472, Federal jurisdiction over certain lands which were accquired for the Standing Rock project under the National Industrial Recovery Act, and other lands in New Mexcio will change jurisdiction today from the Secretary of Agriculture to the Secretary of the Interior.
  • 1970: President Nixon asks Congress to "expressly renounce, repudiate, and repeal the termination policy as expressed in House Concurrent Resolution 108 of the 83rd Congress." He feels termination is wrong & unacceptable.




    July 9th
  • 1609: Today, Samuel de Champlain, 2 Frenchmen, and 60 ALGONQUIN and HURON Indians, will attack 200 MOHAWKs near Ticonderoga, in New York. Champlain has some firearms, and they prove devastating. The MOHAWKs will quit the battle.
  • 1716: The Mission of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe is established for the NACANISH and NOCOGDOCHE Indians today.
  • 1755: Braddock"s forces fight a battle today. The French lose 60 men. The British will have 456 killed, and 421 wounded soldiers, out of the 1,459 who took part in the battle (89 officers, 1373 enlisted). Two-thirds of the British officers will be killed or wounded. Many more British would die within a few days. The French will, records vary, have approximately 250 soldiers, and up to 600 Indians, of which 250 will be MIAMIs. The exact number of Indian combatants is lost to history.
  • 1877: The PONCAs, forced to leave their Dakota reservation by a vindictive American government, finally reach the QUAPAW Reservation in Indian Territory (Oklahoma). This will be their new home. The tribe used to the colder northern climate, will suffer in hot Indian Territory. Almost a quarter of the tribe will die during the first year in Oklahoma.
  • 1969: Today, members of the PASSAMAQUODDY Nation will block road that goes through their reservation in Maine.
  • 1981: The Lakota Times is 1st pubished.


    July 10th
  • 1836: Today, 900 CREEK Indians from Eneah Emathla's Band, are captured, they will be shipped west, in chains, to catch up to the CREEKs that have already left for the Indian Territory.
  • 1854: According to their Indian Agent, 200 SACs & FOXes, were attacked today by a force of 1500 COMANCHEs, KIOWAs, OASGE, and APACHEs near smoky hill, 100 miles west of Fort Riley, in central Kansas. The SAC & FOXes are armed with rifles, and they will prevail over their better number adversaries. The SACs will report only 6 killed, the other Indians will have as many as 26 killed, and 100 wounded. Both sides are surprised that the SAC & FOXes won the fight.
  • 1861: After negotiations with Albert Pike, Confederate Indian representative, the CREEKs sign a treaty with the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy will agree to meet all of the old treaty provisions, they will allow the Indians to send delegates to the Confederate Congress, and several other significant items.
  • 1862: On this date, the Central Pacific Railroad begins construction of what would become a massive railroad empire.
  • 1868: 200 KIOWAs set out to avenge the death of a KIOWA near the New Mexico-Texas border. The KIOWAs are carrying two special talismans. Along the way, the KIOWA commit several taboos. Many of the KIOWAs, sensing "bad medicine" will leave the war party. The remaining KIOWAs will meet a group of 40 UTEs, and a battle ensues. Although the KIOWAs outnumber the UTEs, 7 KIOWAs are killed, and the UTEs ride off with the KIOWASs talismans. For some time, the KIOWAs will unsuccessfully try to recovered the talismans.
  • 1878: Today, General Howard will leave the Cayuse Station. Later in the day, the "hostile" Indians will loot the station, and take their booty back into the mountains.
  • 1900: When the ARIKARA approved the severalty allotment of their lands, on this date, they became citizens of the United States.


    July 11th

  • 1713: After the conclusion of "Queen Anne's War" in 1712, local settlers, and the ABNAKI Indians finally sign a peace treaty today. This will formally end the fighting in the area. Minor incidents will still occur.
  • 1869: General Eugene Carr's fifth cavalry has been following the trail of "hostiles" for several days. Today, he finds a large village on Summit Springs Creek off the South Platte, just south of present day Sterling, in northeastern Colorado. Seven troops of fifth cavalry, and three companies of PAWNEE scouts surprise the village when they attack. The village is captured and burned. According to the official Army report, 52 Indians will be killed, including Chief Tall Bull. Seventeen Indians will be captured. No soldiers will be killed in the attack. 274 horses, 144 mules, a large cache of arms and ammunition, and $1,500 will be seized. Two white women were prisoners in the camp. The Army report says both were shot when the soldiers attacked. One died, and the other, Mrs.Wiechell, will be transported to Fort Sedgwick, in the northeastern corner of Colorado, where she will recover. The Army will give Mrs.Wiechell the $1500.
  • 1877: General Oliver Howard, called "Cut Arm" or "One Armed Soldier Chief" by the Indians, is leading 550 soldiers when the spot the NEZ PERCE along the Clearwater River and Cottonwood Creek. The fighting lasts until the next day when the Army gets reinforcements. The NEZ PERCE will them retreat to the north. During the fighting the Army will report they lost 15 dead, 25 wounded soldiers, and killed 23 warriors. Accounts from NEZ PERCE survivors put their losses at only four. First Lieutenant Charles F. Humphrey, fourth artillery, "voluntarily and successfully conducted, in the face of withering fire, a party which recovered possession of an abandoned howitzer and two gatling guns lying between the lines a few yards from the Indians." For his actions, Humphrey will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
  • 1878: Today, the "hostile" Indians will return to the Cayuse Station. This time, they will burn it down.


    July 12th
  • 1775: A part of this bill passed today will allocate $500 to Dartmouth College, in New Hampshire, to be dedicated to the education of Indian youth.
  • 1784: Even though he has signed a peace treaty with the Spanish, TONKAWA Chief El Mocho is planning to join the Texas Indians together under his leadership and then attack the Spanish. The Spanish hear of El Mocho's plans. Today in the Presidio of la Bahia, El Mocho will be shot down in the plaza by Spanish soldiers.
  • 1839: The Eastern & Western CHEROKEES will meet today to discuss reuniting and establishing a new Capital.
  • 1856: NEZ PERCE fighters with Gerelal Cornelious disband.
  • 1858: Today, a NAVAJO, who is very angry with his wife, goes to Fort Defiance, in northeastern Arizona, to sell blankets. While at the fort, and for no apparent reason, he shoots a negro boy with an arrow. The boy will die a few days later. The NAVAJO flees. The fort authorities will demand his return by NAVAJO leaders. The NAVAJOs are given until August 11, 1858, to bring him into the fort. The murderer will never be produced.
  • 1861: After negotiations with Confederate Agent Albert Pike, the CHICKASAWs, and CHOCTAWs sign a treaty with the Confederacy, almost exactly the same as that signed by the CREEKs two days ago. CHEROKEE troops, under Stand Watie, will be sworn into the Confederate Army, today. Stand Watie will be made a Colonel.
  • 1870: According to Army records, today, the sixth cavalry will engage "hostiles" along the Wichita River in Texas. For "gallantry in action," corporal John Connor, company h, corporal John J.Given, company k, first sergeant John Kirk, company l, segegant Thomas Kerrigan, company h, sergeant George H. Eldridge, company c, sergeant John May, company l, private Solon Neal, company l, farrier Samuel Porter, company l, corporal Charles Smith, company h, first sergeant Alonzo Stokes, company h, corporal James Watson, company i, bugler Claron Windus, company l, and sergeant William Winterbottom, company a, will win the Congressional Medal of Honor.
  • 1873: Captain T.J.Wint, and troop l, fourth cavalry attack a band of Indians on Live Oak Creek, Indian Territory, today. Army reports do not divulge the details of the battle.
  • 1878: At Umatilla Agency, in northeastern Oregon, early this morning, 350 to 400 "hostile" Indians are surprised to discover Captain Miles, and his troops. After an eight hour fight, an Army charge forces the Indians back into the mountains. The fighting will continue for the next several days.


    July 13th
  • 1573: King Philip II makes new laws today for Spanish conquests in the New World.
  • 1713: Many of the northeastern Indian tribes will sign a peace treaty with the British today. They will promise peace, and become British subjects.
  • 1866: After reinforcing, and renaming Fort Reno, in northeastern Wyoming, Col.Henry Carrington sets out to find a base camp from which he can protect the Bozeman Trail. On this date, he arrive at a point near Big Piney Creek with plenty of good grass for his horses. Here he will start building Fort Phil Kearny. The fort is in the middle of one of the best hunting grounds in the region, just south of present day Sheridan, Wyoming.
  • 1872: Today, while in the Whetstone Mountains of Arizona, private Michael Glynn, company f, fifth cavalry, will encounter 8 "hostile Indians." According to his Congressional Medal of Honor, he drove off the Indians, singlehanded. In the process, he killed or wounded 5 of them.
  • 1872: In the same engagement in the Whetstone Mountains of arizona territory, first sergeant Henry Newman, company f, fifth cavalry, will lay down covering fire while wounded soldiers are removed from the field of a battle with apaches. Private John Nihill will "defeat four APACHEs." Newman and Nihill will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
  • 1873: Captain G.W.Chilson, and part of troop c, eighth cavalry, from Fort McRae, are near Canada Alamosa, in southern New Mexico Territory, when the engage a party of Indians. During the fighting one soldier is wounded, and three Indians are killed. A dozen horses, believed to have been stolen, are recovered.
  • 1874: Captain Alfred Bates, and troop b, second cavalry, fight with a band of "hostiles" near Sweetwater, Wyoming. One Indian is killed, and several horses are seized.
  • 1973: New Mexico is told no State Income Taxes can be levied against reservation Indians.


    July 14th
  • 1637: After the defeat of the PEQUOT force on May 26th, Sassacus, and most of the remaining PEQUOTs flee. The English manage to force them into a swamp. The English demand the PEQUOTs surrender. The women, children, and sick are let out, but 80 warriors refuse to give up. They charge the English, and twenty escape, including Sassacus. The English then attack the remaining Indians, and kill them all.
  • 1675: Today, NIPMUC warriors will attack the Massachusetts town of Mendon as a part of "King Philip's War." A few of the settlers will be killed in the raid.
  • 1683: According to some sources, representative of Pennsylvania will purchase several tracts of land today from the DELAWARE Indians.
  • 1765: According to some reports, a peace agreement is signed today by agents of the British and the MINGO and SHAWNEE tribes.
  • 1830: The CHOCTAWs hold a council meeting at the Tombigbee River "factory" store, to receive their government annuity, and to discuss tribal issues. Greenwood le Flore, with 1500 of his followers, confronts southern Chief Mushalatubbe, who has 1000 men with him. Le Flore tells Mushalatubbe that he must give up his chieftainship. Angry words are exchanged, but no fighting occurs. Mushalatubbe will not give up his chieftainship.
  • 1836: Today, 2498 CREEKs board two small boats at Montgomery, Alabama, bound for Indian Territory. This includes 40 warriors whom will be turned over to civil authorities for adjudication for their part in the CREEK war. The extremely close conditions in the two boats will be conducive to the spread of disease.
  • 1847: Today, 25 CHOCTAW Indians from Mobile Bay, Alabama, arrive in eastern Indian Territory at Fort Coffee.
  • 1865: Today, the CHICKASAW Confederate sympathizers officially surrender.
  • Every: The COCHITI PUEBLO festival


    July 15th
  • 1539: Today, de Soto, and his troops, begin their march inland from Tampa Bay.
  • 1673: Today, two Europeans, James Needham and Gabriel Arthur arrive in the CHEROKEE village of Chota. They hope to set up trade between the CHEROKEEs and the Virginia Colony.
  • 1675: After the start of "King Philip's War, the English accost the NARRAGANSETTs. They force them today to sign an agreement to turn over any of Philip's WAMPANOAGs who may come their way.
  • 1682: In the name of William Penn, Deputy Governor Markham will make the first recorded purchase of Indian land in Pennsylvania. Part of what is now Bucks County was purchased from 14 DELAWARE Chiefs for a long list of supplies.
  • 1806: Pike begins the Osage Riber Expedition.
  • 1830: trty w/9 diff.nations(prairie du chien)- William Clark and Willoughby Morgan, representing the United States will sign a treaty with 9 different Indian Nations today. Lands in Iowa, Missouri, and Minnesota will be ceded for money.
  • 1862: Today in his home in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma), CHEROKEE Principal Chief will be captured by Union troops. Ross will spend the rest of the war in Washington and Philadelphia.
  • 1862: Mangas Colorado and Cochise, his son-in-law, have been harassing settlers, wagon trains, and the Army since Cochise had been wrongly accused of kidnapping by Lt. George Bascom in 1861. This incident would lead to the killing of hostages on both sides. On this date, Mangas Colorado and Cochise have positioned 500 warriors on the bluffs overlooking the Apache Pass watering hole. When an Army company of about 300 soldiers approach the spring-fed watering hole, the APACHEs attack. Captain Thomas Roberts, and his soldiers will be driven back, but they will return, and capture the spring with the aid of cannon. Captain Roberts sends out five couriers to warn the next column of troops who were approaching the pass. Mangas Colorado, and four dozen APACHEs take after the messengers. All five of the couriers are shot, and three go down when their horses are shot. Two of the downed soldiers ride out with the other two couriers. This leaves Private John Teal alone against the APACHEs. Teal has a repeating rifle, which is new to the APACHEs. They remain behind cover. Teal would eventually hit Mangas Colorado in the chest, with a rifle shot. This would effectively end the fighting, as the APACHEs take their Chief away.
  • 1870: An Imperial Order-In-Council is issued in Canada today stating "any claims of Indians to compensation for lands required for purposes of settlement shall be disposed of by the Canadian Government." This extended the same rules used in the east, to the western territories.
  • 1877: In the Weippe Prairie, east of Weippe, Idaho, the NEZ PERCE hold a council to decide their movements. The Army is still trying to force them to move to a reservation. They wish to stay free. Looking Glass says they should go east into Montana and join the crow. Chief Joseph (Hein-mot Too-ya-la kekt) suggests they wait for the Army here and fight it out in their own lands. Toohoolhoolzote joins Looking Glass in suggesting they move east into Montana. The tribe decides to move.
  • 1878: Today, Colonel Wheaten assumes command of the troops commanded by Captain Miles. "Friendly" UMATILLA Indians will pursue, and kill, Chief Egan of the PAIUTEs, and a few other Indians.
  • 1886: Geronimo eludes Captain "Tall White Man" Henry Lawton.
  • 1948: An Arizona court say Indians can vote.




    July 16
  • 1862: As a small group of mounted soldiers attempt to leave the Apache Pass watering hole, Mangas, and some warriors, attack. During the fight, Mangas is shot in the chest. The Indians abandon the fight, with the loss of their leader. Eventually, Cochise will take his father-in-law to Mexico, where he will hold a town hostage until a Mexican doctor heals Mangas.
  • 1877: After yesterday's conference, the NEZ PERCE decide to go to Montana to join their allies the CROW, and to hopefully evade the Army which is trying to force them to move to the reservation. Today, they leave their camp in the Weippe Prairie, and head toward the Lolo Pass (near Missoula, Montana).
  • 1825: HUNKPAPA SIOUX sign a treaty with the United States, today.
  • 1839: Sam Houston had negotiated a treaty with the CHEROKEEs living in Texas. They will remain neutral in the Mexico-Texas conflicts, in exchange for title to their lands. When Houston presents the treaty to congress, it is not ratified. Today, a well equipped force of almost 500 Texans, under General Kelsey Douglass, and Colonels Edward Burleson and Thomas Rusk, defeat approximately 800 CHEROKEEs, under Chief Philip Bowles, at the "Battle of the Neches River," near modern day Tyler, Texas. Almost 100 CHEROKEEs will be killed or wounded, including Chief Bowles. The Texans will lose only 8 men. The Texas CHEROKEEs would leave the east Texas area, and move north to Indian Territory. Burleson will eventually become Vice-President of Texas.
  • 1836: 2498 CREEK prisoners reach Mobile Alabama, on their forced removal to Indian Territory. 2300 of them will leave tonight for New Orleans.
  • 1866: CROW treaty concluded today at Fort Union in Montana.
  • 1866: Three days ago, Col.Carrington has started construction of Fort Phil Kearny, in northern Wyoming, to protect the travelers on the Bozeman Trail. The fort is situated in the midst of some of the best grazing and hunting in the Powder River region. Several Chiefs visit the fort, on this date, and talk with cCol.Carrington, called "Little White Chief" by the SIOUX, and his scout Jim "Blanket" Bridger. Carrington demonstrates his cannon. The Indians decide it would not be easy to defeat Col. Carrington, and his men in a battle.
  • 1887: A law is passed which say no Indian languages can be used in reservation language on schools.
  • 1585: After yesterday's first encounter between the Roanoke colony and ALGONQUIAN Indians in the village of Aquascogoc, in Hyde County North Carolina, colonists discover one of their silver cups is missing. Today, led by colony Governor Ralph Lane, the colonists return to the village, and demand the return of the cup. When the cup is not returned, "we burned and spoiled all their corn'" according to the Governor's journal. This would be one of the first significant conflicts in the area between the Europeans and the native inhabitants.
  • 1855: Treaty with 3 different Indian nations is concluded at Hell Gate in the Bitter Root valley. The treaty will establish the FLATHEAD Indian Reservation in Montana.
  • 1859: Treaty wtih 3 different nations. This will create the Jocko reserve in the FLATHEAD agency of Montana. It will cover 2,240 square miles. It is occupied by "BITTER ROOT, CARLOS BAND, FLATHEAD, KUTENAI, LOWER KALISPEL, and PEND d'OREILLE" tribes. It will also affect the Swan CREEK and Black River CHIPPEWA & MUNSEE in Kansas (12 stat.1105).
  • 1709: According to some sources, an agreement of alliance is reached today by representatives of the British in New York and the "FIVE NATIONS."


    July 17th
  • 1866: Early in the morning, on this date, OGLALA SIOUX steal almost 200 horses and mules from Fort Phil Kearny's stock, in northern Wyoming. In addition to acquiring the mounts, this is a plan to draw the soldiers out of the well defended fort. When the soldiers ride out to try to win back the animals, the Indians attack. A running battle ensues. This will be the start of a summer of constant hit-and-run attacks by the Indians.
  • 1917: 125,000 acres of land in Arizona are "reserved from entry, sale, or other disposal and set aside for the use of the KAIBAB and other Indians now residing thereon."
  • 1856: Col.Benjamin F.Shaw, and his volunteer forces will attack 300 "hostiles" in the Grande Ronde Valley, in northeastern Oregon today. His forces will suffer only 5 fatalities while inflicting 40 upon the Indians.
  • 1775: Benjamin Franklin proposes a SIX NATIONS alliance.
  • 1876: Col.Wesley Merritt, and troops a,b,d,g,i,k,and m, fifth cavalry, find approximately 800 Indians near Hat Creek (War Bonnet), Wyoming. One Indian is killed, another is wounded. The rest are forced back to their reservation on the Red Cloud Agency. The one Indian killed is Chief Yellow Hand. He will be killed in the much heralded single combat with William "Buffalo Bill" Cody.
  • 1869: Between July 10th and today, the stagecoaches in New Mexico will be attacked 3 times, according to army reports. Ten people will be killed.
  • 1863: Union forces battle the Confederates at Honey Springs, south of Muskogee. This will be the biggest battle of the Civil War to take place in Indian Territory. The Confederate Indian forces, made up of CHEROKEE, CHICKASAW, CHOCTAW and creeks would be defeated.
  • 1882: Natiotish, and 60 WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHEs, are soundly defeated by cavalry in the Battle of Big Dry Wash, Arizona. For rescuing a wounded comrade during this fight, Second Lieutenant Thomas Cruse, sixth cavalry was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. First Lieutenant Frank West, sixth cavalry, also won the award for rallying his command and leading and advance. Second Lieutenant George Morgan, third cavalry, and First Sergeant Charles Taylor, company d, were awarded the medal for gallantry.
  • 1879: Lt.William Clark, a troop from second cavalry, a company from the fifth infantry, and 50 Indian scouts, are the advance unit of Col.Nelson Miles' force seeking SIOUX Indians along the Missouri River near fort peck, in northeastern Montana. Clark encounters almost 400 Indians between Frenchmen's and Beaver Creeks. A running battle takes place, with Clark's soldiers eventually being surrounded by the indians. Col.Miles's troops rescue Clark near the Milk River. According to Army reports, several hostiles, and 3 Indian scouts are killed. A significant amount of the Indians' stores were captured. The Army reports Sitting Bull to be among the "hostiles". The SIOUX head off north of the Milk River.
  • 1972: The bureau of indian affairs will offer the NAVAJOs self-rule today. If they accept, they will control all B.I.A. functions on their reservation.
  • 1973: An United States Census Bureau report, today, says 1969 median income for Indian households was $5,832, the national median was $9,590. Forty percent of all Indian households were below poverty levels, the national average was 14%, blacks were 32%.


    July 18th
  • 1694: ABNAKI Chief Abomazine, almost 300 PENOBSCOT warriors, and few French attack the settlement today along the south side of the Oyster River, at modern-day Durham, New Hampshire. The Indians are trying to sneak into the village when their presence in discovered. Some settlers escape, others retreat to fortified homes. 104 settlers will be killed, and 27 will be taken hostage before the Indians withdraw. Four months later, Abomazine will approach the fort at Pemaquid, under a white flag. He will be seized by the garrison for his part in the attack.
  • 1778: Joseph Brant (Brandt), and 500 IROQUOIS followers will attack the small village of Springfield on Lake Otsego, in New York today. Fourteen men will be captured, 8 killed, and most of the village will be burned in the fighting.
  • 1778: Hundreds of pro-British Indians attack Andrustown, just south of German Flats in New York today. Four settlers are killed, and the rest of the town is taken prisoner. The village will then be burned to the ground.
  • 1759: Today, British Superintendent for Indian Affairs in the Southern Department, Edmund Atkins, met with Choctaws in the upper CREEK villages. They will sign a treaty which will establish trade, and a promise of mutual aid in case of war. This treaty would anger the CHOCTAWs former allies, the French.
  • 1851: One in a series of treaties is signed today at Camp Camp union with California Indians. The treaty is to reserve lands and to protect the Indians.
  • 1837: The last of the 4000 creeks who had been held at Mobile Point, have been moved out of the camp. Many CREEKs were to die in the unsanitary conditions at the camp.
  • 1815: At Portage du Sioux,Missouri, POTAWATOMI, PIANKASHAW sign a treaty with the United States. William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian Edwards represent the U.S. Prisoners taken during the War of 1812 will be exchanged.
  • 1878: "Friendly" Indians at Lemhi, kill "BANNOCK John", who murdered James Dempsey. They killed BANNOCK John, so the whites would not think the LEMHIs were involved in the BANNOCK uprising.
  • 1836: 2300 CREEK prisoners reach New Orleans today. Heavy rains, and scarce supplies will make their three day stay here miserable.
  • 1825: The ARIKARA treaty is signed today.
  • 1942: The SIX NATIONS declare war on the Axis Powers.
  • 1764: According to some reports, an agreement regarding peace and alliances will be reached today by representatives of Great Britain and the HURONs.
  • Every: Through the 20th, 8 Northern PUEBLOs hold an art show.
    July 19th
  • 1675: The English have trapped Philip, and some of his WAMPANOAGs, in Cedar Swamp near the Taunton River, in southeastern Massachusetts. Today, Philip lures the English into the swamp, where he attacks them. A little more than a half dozen English are killed, and Philip escapes.
  • 1815: SIOUX of the Lake, SIOUX of St.Peters River, YANKTON SIOUX, TETON SIOUX will sign a treaty with United States today at Portage des Sioux.
  • 1991: Today, Congress creates the NEZ PERCE Historical Trail Foundation. The Foundation is established to mark the trail the NEZ PERCE took on their flight from the Army in 1877. The Foundation will be administered by the United States Forest Service and the NEZ PERCE.
  • 1820: KICKAPOO treaty
  • 1856: By this date, all of the remaining ROGUE RIVER Indians are en route to the Grande Ronde Reservation. They number 1225.
  • 1881: After requesting the Canadian Government to establish a reservation for his people, Sitting Bull (Tatanka Yotanka) is told they are not Canadians, and no reservation will be made. Many of his most trusted followers have already crossed back into the United States, and are now on reservations. Sitting Bull finally decides to return to the United States. On this date, Sitting Bull rides into Fort Buford in western North Dakota. Sitting Bull is accompanied by slightly less than 190 of his beleaguered tribe. He will officially surrender to American authorities tomorrow.
  • 1866: CHEROKEE treaty - this will be the post civil war treaty between the CHEROKEEs and the United States Government. (14 stat.1866)
  • 1881: Nana, leading thirteen of the remnants of Victorio's APACHE, fights with Lt.John Guilfoyle, and his ninth cavalry troopers, and Indian scouts, near the Arena Blanca River. The Indians manage to escape.


    July 20th
  • 1698: According to some sources, a peace conference will be held for the next three days between representatives of the British in New York and the "FIVE NATIONS."
  • all: POPE foot race -
  • 1777: Continuing their efforts to stop the fighting with the English, conservative cherokee chiefs will sign a peace treaty with Virginia representatives on the Great Island on the Holston River, today. This treaty, and the one signed on May 20, 1777, will cost the CHEROKEEs over five million acres of land.
  • 1776: In what some will call the first battle of the CHEROKEE War of 1776, CHICKAMAUGA CHEROKEE (CHICKAMAUGA) Chief Dragging Canoe will lead an attack on the American settlement near Eaton's Station, Tennessee on the Great Island in the Holston River, today. Each side will have a little over 150 fighters. The settlers have been warned of the coming attack, and they are prepared. Dragging Canoe will sustain serious wounds; but, he will survive. The settlers will lose 4 men, the Indians 13. As the CHEROKEEs retreat, they will attack outlaying settlements, killing 18 extra people. This fight will go by many names: "The Battle of Eaton's Station, The Battle of Island Flats, and The Battle of Long Island."
  • 1805: Indians burn prairie upon seeing Lewis & Clark
  • 1528: After spending almost a month in the APALACHEE village of Ivitachuco, today, the Narvaez expedition will leave. They will set out in their quest for gold looking for the village of Aute, near present day St. Marks. Accompaning Narvaez is Aztec Prince Tetlahuehuetzquititzin. The Prince, also known as Don Pedro, fought with the Spanish against Montezuma. He will be killed by APALACHEE warriors during this search for gold.
  • 1831: SENECA & SHAWNEE sign a treaty today.
  • 1815: The MAKAH sign a treaty today at Portage du Sioux.
  • 1881: According to Army records, Sitting Bull will be accompanied by 45 men, 67 women, and 73 children.
  • 1867: A Congressional Act is passed today to establish a Board of Beace Commissioners to "establish peace with certain hostile Indian tribes". Nathaniel Taylor, S.F.Tappan,J.B.Henderson, and J.B.Sanborn are appointed by Congress. President grant will appoint Generals Sherman, Harney, Augur, and Terry to the commission.
  • 1863: General james carleton, called star chief by the NAVAJOs, has ordered the NAVAJOs to leave their homeland and to report to the Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico. All NAVAJOs found off the reservation, after this date, will be considered "hostiles", and will be treated accordingly. No NAVAJOs turn themselves in, leading to the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, and the "Long Walk."
  • 1874: Lt.Col.George Buell, and 11 soldiers, and 9 TONKAWA Indian scouts, attack a band of "hostile" Indians in Palo Pinto County, Texas. No injuries are reported, but the soldiers capture one horse.
  • 1878: Lt.Col.Forsyth, who has taken over Captain Bernard's Idaho Battalion, encounters part of the BANNOCK forces on the North Fork of the John Day River, near the town of Granite. One civilian courier, and an unknown number of Indians, are reported killed.
  • 1676: Captain Benjamin Church has been joined by the SAKONETT Indians, in the war with King Philip. Today they attack Philip's main camp, and almost capture Philip. His wife and child will be captured. They will be sold as slaves. As many as 170 Indians will be killed in the fighting.


    JULY 21ST
  • 1775: The United States divides Indian territory into three division.
  • 1832: General James Henry's forces will defeat Black Hawk and his followers today in the "Battle of Wisconsin Heights. According to military records, Black Hawk loses 68 warriors; however, Black Hawk says he only six men.
  • 1806: CROW Indians steal 24 of Lewis & Clark horses.
  • 1874: The Department of the Interior, though the War Department authorized General John Pope, and his command, to "punish" the Indians raiding in Indian Territory (Oklahoma). This authority allowed the army to punish these marauders even if they were found on reservations. Several expeditions would soon be sent into Indian Territory to search for these "hostiles".
  • 1836: The 2000+ CREEK prisoners are loaded onto three steamboats and leave New Orleans, bound for the Indian Territory.
  • 1878: First Lt.T.S.Wallace, and fifteen men from the third infantry, fight with a band of NEZ PERCE near the Middle Fork of the Clearwater River, in Montana. The NEZ PERCE are wanted for attacking whites in Montana. They are believed to be former followers of White Bird, who left British Columbia to return to their ancestral lands in the United States. During the fighting, six Indians are killed, and 3 are wounded. No soldiers are reported to have been killed. Then soldiers capture 31 horses, as well.
  • 1855: John W. Quinney, STOCKBRIDGE Chief, dies today in Stockbridge, New York. Through his effects, his tribe created a constitutional system for the election of its here-to-fore hereditary leaders. He was instrumental in the cessation of the sell of tribal lands to Europeans. He would lead the efforts to have 460 acres of their formers lands returned by the State of New York. He was elected Chief of the tribe in 1852.


    JULY 22ND
  • 1996: Today, in Syracuse, New York, Leon Shenandoah died at 81 years of age. Shenandoah was a leader of the ONONDAGA Indians. In 1969, he was named the Tadadaho, or the Spritual Leader, of the IROQUOIS Confederacy. Shenandoah live almost all of his life on the ONONDAGA Reservation in New York state.
  • 1790: The United States enacts a law for the formal regulation of trade with Indians.
  • 1814: A Treaty with five different Indian Nations is signed today. The United States declares peace.
  • 1859: The NEZ PERCE's new agent, Mr. Cain, arrives today.
  • 1876: After Custer's defeat on the Little Big Horn River (the Greasy Grass), Americans wanted revenge on the plains Indians. One way to get back at the Indians was to punish them all, even those who had nothing to do with the battle, and were living peacefully on reservations. On this date, General Sherman received orders to impose military rule over all of the plains reservations. All inhabitants were now considered to be prisoners of war. Congress authorizes the construction of two new forts in the area of the Yellowstone River.




    July 23rd
  • 1805: A treaty with the CHICKASAW is completed today. The CHICKASAW will cede lands near the Ohio, and Tennessee rivers, to pay off old debts. The tribe will be paid $20,000, two individual indians will get $1000 each. $100 a year for life will be paid to Chinubbee Mingo-"King of Nation." No whites may live on CHICKASAW lands, without CHICKASAW approval. All of the old treaties still apply. Ten Indians will sign the treaty.
  • 1851: At the Traverse de Ssioux today a treaty is concluded between the United States and the "SEE-SEE-TOAN" (SISSETON) and "WAH-PAY-TOAN" (WAHPETON) Bands of DAKOTA or SIOUX Indians.(10 stat.949).
  • 1838: SEMINOLE warriors, under Chief Chakaika, will attack elements of Colonel William Hearny's second dragoons tonight. Hearny was camped at, and around, a trading post along the Caloosahatchee River. The SEMINOLEs' attack will surprise the sleeping soldiers. Hearny, camped outside the post, will get away only by running into the swamp in his underwear. Eighteen soldiers will be killed or captured. Hearny will vow revenge.
  • 1892: Goverment says that no alcohol sales are allowed on Indian land.
  • 1832: The Eastern CHEROKEEs hold a council today, in Red Clay, tennessee, to discuss President Jackson's special envoy Elisha Chester's proposals for their removal to Indian Territory. They will reject the proposal out-of-hand. They says they will not hold negotiations as long as the federal government is not living up to its previous treaty promises.
  • 1879: Canadians send a message to American General Miles that the SIOUX who have sought refuge in Canada are behaving peacefully.
  • 1836: Two men are minding the lighthouse on Key Biscayne, Florida. They are attacked today by a SEMINOLE war party. One man is killed. The other manages to signal for help from a nearby ship by exploding a keg of gunpowder.
  • 1839: Today, a small group of whites, under command of Col.William S.Harney, are enroute to establish a trading post near Lake Okechobee as part of a peace treaty with the SEMINOLEs. They are attacked by a group of SEMINOLEs, led by CALUSA SEMIINOLE Chief Chakaika, and 18 whites are killed.
  • 1714: According to some sources, a peace conference will be held for the next six days between representatives of the ABENAKI Indians and the British in Massachusetts colony.
  • 1748: According to some reports, a friendship conference will be held for the next four days between representatives of the British in Massachusetts and New York, and the "SIX NATIONS."
  • 1914: Today, by Executive Order Number 1995, certain parts of the NAVAJO Reservation will be set aside for the use of company g, first infantry, of the Arizona militia.
  • 1971: John Crow, a CHEROKEE, is appointed commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, today.
  • 1766: 7/31/1766 - According to some reports, a peace conference between representatives of Great Britain and the HURON, OJIBWA, OTTAWA, POTAWATOMI and "SIX NATIONS" tribes will be held for the next nine days.


    July 24th
  • 1877: The NEZ PERCE cross Lolo Summit.
  • 1534: Cartier claims land for France.
  • 1701: Ft.Detroit is established.
  • 1766: Pontiac surrenders.
  • 1847: Brigham Young sees the Salt Lake Valley.
  • 1863: SANTEE SIOUX engage part of the Minnesota uprising.
  • 1977: COMANCHE & UTE end hunting dispute.


    July 25th
  • all: PUEBLOs celebrate Santiago's & St.James' Day
  • 1759: The British attack Ft.Niagra.
  • 1895: BANNOCK engage in a fight at Jackson Hole.
  • 1862: HUNKPAPA SIOUX threaten army @ Ft.Berthold.
  • 1877: The NEZ PERCE are on Lolo Creek near Rawn's Barricade.
  • 1757: Today a war party of five dozen SHAWNEEs will stage an attack of farms along the James River in Virginia. At one farm they will kill a settler and his child. They will take his wife, Hannah Dennis prisoner. She will eventually be taken to the SHAWNEE village of Chillicothe. After ingratiating herself to the SHAWNEEs, she was given run of the village. She would eventually escape. Her tale became widespread throughout the American colonies.
  • 1863: As part of the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, Kit Carson decides to force the NAVAJOs to surrender by destroying their food supply. Today, he will order Major Joseph Cummings to proceed along the Bonito River, and to seize all livestock and crops. Anything he cannot haul way, will be burned.
  • 1869: Troops from Fort Stanton, in central New Mexico, come across the trail of hostile Indians. They follow the trail to a village. The troops "totally destroy it", according to their report. Most of the Indians escape into the nearby canyons.
  • 1881: Lt.John Guilfoyle, and his ninth cavalry soldiers, and Indian scouts, again fight with Nana and his APACHE followers (formerly with Victorio). Two "hostile" Indians, and three civilians, are believed to been killed in the fighting.
  • 1952: Public Land Order 858 will be modified today to remove certain lands in the Fort Peck Reservation, in Montana, from the classification of being "opened for disposal" under public land laws.
  • 1874: APACHE Indian Chuntz is killed today.


    July 26th
  • all: St.Anne Feast Day is celebrated in many PUEBLO villages today.
  • 1824: SEMINOLE Principal Chief Neamathla also called Eneah Emathla) has managed to avoid removing his people from Florida to the west. Florida Governor William Duval has become convinced that Neamathla is planning another uprising. Today, the Governor officially removes Neamathla from his position as Chief.
  • 1827: Today, the CHEROKEE Constitutional Convention will adopt a new constitution, based on the constitution of the United States.
  • 1865: Following the massacre at Sand Creek, many Indians began attacking military outposts, and people crossing their territory. A group of CHEYENNE, led by Roman Nose, wanted revenge for lost relatives. They approached a bridge across the North Platte in what is now Casper, Wyoming. The bridge was also the site of a telegraph station and a military outpost. After trying for two days to get the soldiers out of the fort, a column of troops cross the bridge. The Indians attack and kill many soldiers, including Lt.Casper Collins. Another column of troops comes to the rescue, and cannonfire from the fort helps them escape. The soldiers had left the fort to provide an escort for an approaching wagon train. Another band of Indians attacks the wagon train. During the fighting, Roman Nose's brother is killed. Roman Nose lead a charge against the wagon train and all of the soldiers guarding it are killed. Their anger quickly dissipates, and the Indians quit the fight, and leave the area.
  • 1796: George Catlin, painter, is born today.


    July 27th
  • 1813: A battle took place on Burnt Corn Creek, not far from the Escambia River. CREEKs led by Chief Peter McQueen, had just recently purchased guns and ammo in Pensacola from the British. While enroute back to their villages, they are attacked by Colonel James Caller, and 180 militiamen. After initially gaining the upper hand, someone in the militia called for a retreat, and some of the Americans took off at a run. Taking advantage of the situation, the Red Stick CREEs were able to escape. This battle would encourage the CREEKs to further battles with the Americans. Six men in McQueen's group, and two soldiers will die in the fighting. This first fight of the CREEK War would be called "The Battle of Burnt Corn."
  • 1757: Today, ottawa warriors, and a few French soldiers attack a group of 22 barges commanded by British Lt.Col.John Parker on Lake George in New York. The British forces will have 160 men killed, and almost 150 men captured. Only two of the barges will escape the fighting.
  • 1806: Indians steal guns from the Lewis and Clark expedition. One Indian will be killed.
  • 1777: June McCrea is killed today. A painting will be made showing her about to be scalped. It will become a famous piece of American Art.
  • 1585: Sir Walter Raleigh given grant for Roanoke.
  • 1874: Gold found in the Black Hills.
  • 1853: KIOWAs sign treaty at Fort Atkinson, in southwestern Kansas, with agent Thomas Fitzpatrick. They agree to peace with the United States, and Mexico, allow forts and roads to be built on their lands. They will get $18,000 per year for ten years.
  • 1889: It was not much time after the establishment of the "Great SIOUX Reservation" that the U.S.Government decided to try to reduce the Indian's holding once again. The plan was to establish several smaller reservations, and to open up millions of acres for white settlement. Led by General George Crook, the treaty commission arrives at Standing Rock agency to convince the SIOUX to sell their lands for $1.50 an acres. A previous commission's efforts to offer them fifty cents am acre had failed miserably.
  • 1877: Captain Charles Rawn has built a barricade across the Lolo Canyon, east of the Lolo Pass to block the NEZ PERCE from passing through the mountains into Montana. Today, Rawn talks with the NEZ PERCE. The Indians promise to pass peacefully through the Bitter Root Valley, if the Army leaves them alone. Captain Rawn will only let them pass, if they leave their firearms with him, according to army records. Both parties agree to meet again the next day. Rawn has 5 other officers, 30 soldiers and 150 local volunteers. When the volunteers hear that the NEZ PERCE are willing to travel through the area peacefully, they decide that is the safest thing foreveryone. The volunteers slowly abandon their positions and leave.
  • 1879: Captain Michael Courtney, and ten troopers from troop h, tenth cavalry, fight with Indians around the salt lakes near the Carrizo Mountain, in Texas, today. Two soldiers, and one Indian, are wounded. Two Indians will die from wounds inflicted during the fighting. The soldiers will also capture ten horses.
  • 1816: The British had built a fort on the Apalachicola River for the SEMINOLE Indians to use to defend themselves. Few SEMINOLEs ever inhabit the fort, but their black allies do. Today, 500 CREEKs under Colonel Clinch and Chief William McIntosh, with an American river boat will attack, and destroy the fort. The fort's magazine will explode and cause an estimated 270 deaths among the 334 inhabitants. Many of the survivors will fight to the death rather than face capture and enslavement. This will lead the Indians to believe they will have to fight the Americans to keep their lands. The Americans are led by Col.Duncan L.Clinch. The fort is well within Spanish Territory. The fort will be known as the Negro Fort and Fort Nicholls (also spelled Nicolls).
  • 1871: (through August 3, 1871) Today starts negotiations between CREE and OJIBWA Indians, and the Government of Canada, at Stone Fort (later Fort Garry), in present day Winnipeg, Manitoba. This would be the Stone Fort Treaty, or Treaty Number One. They will eventually sell 16,700 square miles of lower Manitoba.


    July 28th
  • 1763: Indians attack Fort Pitt, again, today.
  • 1978: An act is passed today called "The AK-CHIN Water Settlement Act." This act provides for equitable water for the AK-CHIN Indian community (TOHONO O'ODHAM and PIMA Indians) in Pinal County, Arizona. It would yake six years before the law would be toally enforced.
  • 1704: End of Queen Anne's War.
  • 1528: Panfilo de Narvaez, and his expedition, reach the Indian village of Aute, today.
  • 1868: On this date, the 14th Amendment becomes a part of the U.S.Constitution. It grants equal rights to all men, with the exception of Indians.
  • 1756: Today, DELAWARE Chief Teedyuscung, and 14 other chiefs, meet with Pennsylvania Governor Robert Morris, and other Pennsylvania leaders at Easton, Pennsylvania to discuss the DELAWARE uprising. Teedyuscung agrees to visit the warring members of the tribe, and to try to end the fighting.
  • 1864: SANTEE SIOUX engage in a battle at Killdeer.
  • 1865: SIOUX, including Sitting Bull, attack soldiers at Fort Rice.
  • 1877: Captain Charles Rawn is accompanied by 5 officers, 30 soldiers and 150 local volunteers. When the volunteers left last night and today, Rawn's force is dramatically reduced. This withdrawl by the volunteers leads to the barricade's derisive title of Fort Fizzle.
  • 1861: Fort Bowie is established in the Apache Pass, in southeastern Arizona, by members of Brigadier General James Charlatan's California volunteers.


    July 29th
  • 1857: Col.Edwin "Old Bull" Sumner, with three companies of infantry and six troops of cavalry, are proceeding down the Solomon's Fork River, in western Kansas. The cavalry is a few miles ahead of the infantry, when they encounter 300 CHEYENNE warriors. The Indians are rested, the soldiers are tired. A running battle ensues with few death on either side. Sumner's cavalry will hold their own against a large group of CHEYENNE. The CHEYENNE had been told by a medicine man they would be immune from the soldier's bullets if the washed themselves in a sacred spring. This would be one of the rare occasions when the CHEYENNE would face the soldiers in an open battle. But the medicine man was wrong. Disheartened by the "bad medicine", the CHEYENNE take flight. The cavalry will charge, and follow the Indians for miles. One of the officers wounded in the battle was J.E.B.Stuart. Soldiers will call this the "Battle of Solomon's Fork".
  • 1905: The boundaries of the Santa Clare PUEBLO Indian Reservation will be modified today.
  • 1836: The 2300+ CREEK prisoners reach Rock Roe on the White River in Arkansas. While waiting eight days for necessary supplies to arrive, the chains and manacles are removed from almost all of the CREEKs.
  • 1829: A Treaty with three Indian nations is signed today in Michigan)- Caleb Atwater, Pierre Menard and John Mcneil & the OTTAWA, CHIPPEWA, and POTAWATOMI Indians. Lands are ceded near Lake Michigan for $16,000 a year & some goods.
  • 1868: After years of conflict over the Bozeman Trail along the Powder River, the War Department finally gives in to indian's, and particularly Red Cloud's, demands and starts abandoning its forts. On this date, Fort C.F.Smith's garrison will pack-up and leave. The fort was located near present day Yellowtail and Big Horn Lake, in southern Montana.
  • 1837: Henry Dodge, representing the United States, and the CHIPPEWA Indians sign a treaty today at St. Peters, Wisconsin. The CHIPPEWAhs will trade large land holdings for $9,500 immediately, $19,000 worth of supplies, and a release from their debts.
  • 1968: The American Indian Movement (A.I.M.) is founded.
  • 1889: Today through the 31st, the SIOUX land conference is held at Standing Rock.


    July 30th
  • 1756: Captain Jacobs, a DELAWARE Chief, his followers, and a few French under Louis Coulon de Villiers, attack Fort Granville, Pennsylvania, today. The fort surrenders, making it one of the first well fortified positions in the areas to do so. During the fighting, Lt.Edward Armstrong will be killed. His death will lead his brother, Col.John Armstrong, on a campaign against Captain Jacob. Some sources say the attack started today, and the fort surrendered tomorrow.
  • 1868: Yesterday, the army abandoned Fort C.F.Smith, in southern Montana. Today, Red Cloud enters the fort in triumph. Red Cloud, and his followers, will burn every building to the ground.
  • 1819: The KICKAPOO give up their lands along the Vermilion and the Illinois Rivers to the United States.
  • 1825: MANDAN treaty.
  • 1685: According to some sources, an agreement is reached today for the DELAWARE Indians to cede some lands to Pennsylvania.
  • 1825: MINITAREE treaty
  • 1876: Lt.J.L.Bullis, and 40 men, attack a band of "hostile" KICKAPOOs and LIPAN Indians near Saragossa, Mexico. Ten Indians are killed. Four Indians, and 100 horses, are captured.
  • 1715: According to some sources, a peace agreement in reached today by representatives of Pennsylvania and the CONESTOGA, DELAWARE, POTOMAC and SHAWNEE Indians.
  • 1881: According to army reports, Nana, and his APACHEs kill four Mexicans,today, in the foothills of the San Mateo Mountains of New Mexico.


    July 31st
  • 1710: According to some sources, an agreement on peace and land boundries is reached today between representatives of Pennsylvania and the "FIVE NATIONS", the SHAWNEEs and the DELAWARE.
  • 1763: Captain James Dalyell, and 280 soldiers attack Pontiac's village at 2:30 am this morning. Pontiac was informed of Dalyell's plans, so he sets up an ambush at the Parent's Creek bridge with 400 Indians. When Dalyell's troops approach the bridge, the Indians attack. Twenty soldiers, including Dalyell, and 7 Indians are killed in the fighting. The creek, near Detroit, is now called Bloody Run. Major Robert Rogers would help Dalyell's survivors to escape.
  • 1881: Sitting Bull is received in Bismarck for a "big reception".
  • 1684: According to some sources, today will be the start of a six day conference between representatives of the New York colonies and the MOHAWKs, ONIEDAs, ONOODAGAs and CAYUGAas. Some lands will be ceded and allegiances are pledged.
  • 1837: According to government reports, of the 4000 CREEKs being held at Mobile Point, awaiting transport to indian territory, 177 will die at the camp, or in the first leg of their transport.
  • 1811: The City of Vincennes asks Harrison fight the local Indians.
  • 1879: Col.Nelson Miles, after the Battle of the Milk River on july 17, 1879, has been following the trail of a large group of SIOUX Indians. Today he reports that the SIOUX have crossed over into Canada. After a brief pause, miles returns to the Milk River.
  • 1880: According to a report from the Dort Davis commanding officer, today, stage driver, E.C.Baker, and passenger Frank Wwyant, are killed by Victorio's Indians eight miles west of Eagle Springs, in west Texas.
  • 1880: Col Benjamin Grierson, and 6 soldiers, are attacked by Victorio's Indians between Quitman, and Eagle Springs, Texas. The fighting continues, as numerous cavalry soldiers come to the rescue. After many hours of fighting, 7 Indians, and one soldier, are killed. The Indians are chased to the Rio Grande.
  • 1970: Congress decides today that new "rolls" must be made for descendants of the WEA, PIANKASHAW, PEORIA, and KASKASKIA Indian tribes who were included in the May 30, 1854 treaty. The Government wants to distribute $2,000,000 to the descendants.
  • 1857: Today, Col.Edwin V.Sumner, and the "CHEYENNE Expedition", reach the village of the CHEYENNEs they fought at Solomon's Fork. The village has recently been abandoned. Sumner will destroy the abandoned lodges, and supplies.
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