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June 1st to 8th in North American Indian History by Phil Konstantin
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: With the exception of 4 Indians who were involved in the murder of 5 Frenchmen, and 2 High Chiefs, French commander Bienville releases his NATCHEZ prisoners. He tells them that they must return all of the dead men's possessions, they must provide logs for the French to build a fort, and they must kill the NATCHEZ Chief, Oyelape, who ordered the killings.
1763: As part of Pontiac's rebellion, today, Indians will ask Lt.Edward Jenkins, commander at Fort Ouiatenon, in present day West Lafayette, northwestern Indiana, to attend a council outside the fort. He agrees, and is taken as a hostage. His garrison of almost 20 men will surrender.
1773: In Augusta, Georgia, today CREEKs and CHEROKEEs will sign a treaty with England. The agreement will give over 2 million acres to the Europeans. This ceding of lands will eradicate debts owed by the Indians. Many Europeans were already squatting on the lands, anyway. Some sources say this treaty was signed on June 3rd.
1784: Today, the Spanish will appoint CREEK Chief Alexander McGillivray, 1/4 CREEK, the "Commissary" to the CREEKs. McGillivray has sought Spanish and other tribe's help in disputing English land claims.
1804: Lewis and Clark reach the OSAGE.
1812: Canadian British meet with Tecumseh.
1816: The SIOUX sign a treaty today.
1830: Georgia laws now apply to the CHEROKEE.
1833: Certain SAC and FOX lands becomes public domain.
1836: Alabama Governor Clement Clay says, today, there are an estimated 1500 hostile CREEKs in his state.
1852: According to Major George T. Howard, Superintendent of Texas Indian aAgents, there are approximately 22,780 Indians in Texas, as of this date. The COMANCHEs and KIOWAs make up 20,000 of this number.
1868: After the "long walk" to the Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico, the NAVAJOs suffered from the poor conditions on the reservation, and from homesickness for their old lands. After numerous visits from Washington representatives, General Sherman visited the NAVAJO. They again asked to go back to their old lands. They promised the keep the peace and the old treaties. Sherman talked with them, and he listened to them. With a new treaty in hand, Sherman says he will let them go, if they sign, and obey, the new treaty. The NAVAJOs agree, even though they will lose some of their land as a part of the new agreement. On this date, Barboncito, Armijo, Delgadito, Herrero Grande, Manuelito, and others sign the new treaty.
1869: A party of 7th Cavalry troopers is encamped on the Solomon River in Kansas. Indians attack with 1 person on each side being wounded. Settlements on the Solomon River are also attacked, today. Thirteen men are killed, 150 head of livestock are stolen, and numerous houses are burned. A cavalry search of the area proves unsuccessful.
1870: Seventh Cavalry troops pursue a band of Indians who have raided the Solomon River, Kansas, settlements today. Four Indians will be wounded during the day.
1873: Kintpuash (Captain Jack) surrenders today.
1876: 176 Indians join the Army in the fight against Sitting Bull.
1878: Two herders are killed on Colson's ranch, 12 miles west of Camp Wood, near Del Rio, Texas, according to a report by the commanding Army officer at Fort Clark, Texas.
1910: Today, Congress will pass an Act (36 stat. 455) which grant the government authority to dispose of "unused" lands on the Fort Berthold Reservation.
1934: A legal definition of "Indian" is made today.
1691: According to some sources, a conference will be held for the next 3 days between representatives of the "FIVE NATIONS" and the British in New York. They will agree to an alliance.
1767: According to some reports, a conference is held today by representatives of the British and the CHEROKEEs to discuss boundary lines.
1788: Today, forces under General John Sevier, will attack the CHEROKEE village of Hiwassee. The American forces will be victorious, with many of the CHEROKEEs fleeing the area. The village will be burned.
1825: The OSAGE sign a treaty today at Council Grove in Kansaa. (7 stat.240)
1830: CHOCTAW leaders write Secretary of War General John Eaton. They say they would like to look at the proposed lands for their resettlement in the west, before they have a conference on selling their eastern lands.
1837: Almost 500 of the 4000 CREEK Indians who were assembled in Montgomery, Alabama in March, have now reached Little Rock, Arkansas. They are under the supervision of Lt.Edward Deas. The remainder of the 3500 CREEKs are still at Mobile Point.
1837: Many SEMINOLEs have gathered at Tampa Bay to be removed west, including Chiefs Alligator and Jumper. Today, Chiefs Osceola and Sam Jones, who is almost 70 years old, will lead a force of 200 SEMINOLE warriors into the camp. Almost 700 SEMINOLEs will flee the camp into the surrounding swamps with the warriors.
1875: Today, Quanah Parker, and his remaining KWAHADIS COMANCHEs will surrender.
1877: The Pinto Horse Bluff council takes place today. Sitting Bull will stay in Canada.
1878: Captain (Brevet Colonel) R.F.Bernard, and his troops from Boise, Idaho, will force the Indians at Big Camas Prairie to retreat into the nearby lava beds.
1880: One Bull steals some horses, which leads to a confrontation with Canada.
1924: Indians become U.S. citizens today.
1539: Having been in Florida for only a few days, today, Hernando de Soto formally claims Florida for the King of Spain.
1684: According to some sources, a land cession agreement is reached today between representatives of the DELAWARE Indians and Pennsylvania.
1798: Colonel Benjamin Hawkins is the Principal Agent to the southern Indians nations. His efforts to get the young CREEK warriors to stop robbing settlers, and in some cases, stop committing murder, has created a great deal of antagonism. Today, he is warned by several older Chiefs that a group of warriors plans to kill him during the night. Hawkins claims his peaceful intentions, and goes to sleep in his quarters in the CREEK village of Tuckabatchee. Several CREEK Chiefs guard Hawkins during the night, and the attack is avoided.
1815: WINNEBAGO Chief Neokautah signs a peace treaty with the Americans today at Mackinac.
1816: William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian Edwards, negotiated a peace treaty with the Wisconsin River WINNEBAGOs today, in Saint Louis. The treaty confirmed the end of fighting between the parties and returned prisoners.
1825: The KANSA sign a treaty today at Council Grove, Kansas. Representing the United States is William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
1830: Today, the Governor of Georgia will declare the laws passed on December 19, 1829 to officially be in effect. These laws would extend Georgia sovereignty over most of CHEROKEE lands in the state. Indians could no longer be witnesses in any court in the state. All CHEROKEE laws are now nullified. It would be illegal to try to keep an Indian from emigrating to Indian Territory. Since gold had been discovered on CHEROKEE lands, the Governor declared that all CHEROKEE lands now belonged to the state, including the gold mines.
1833: Today, Secretary of War Lewis Cass gives orders directly to the United States Marshal's office to remove white settlers, and trespassers, from CREEK lands in Alabama.
1846: Kearny gets authority to seize California.
1850: Leaders in the CAYUSE war are hung in Oregon City, today. Those hung will include Tilokaikt, and Tamsaky.
1869: President Grant, by Executive Order today, will define the responsibilities of the newly authorized, 10 member Board of Indian Commissioners to oversee Indian appropriations. (see May 25, 1933)
1870: In fierce fighting at the mail station at Bear Creek, Kansas, two soldiers of the military guard are killed, and one is wounded. The Indians will have 5 killed, and 10 wounded. In another area, Captain George Armes, 10th Cavalry, will become separated from his escort. He will be chased by "hostiles", but he will escape.
1875: Troops of the 4th Cavalry, under Lt.J.A.McKinney, are tracking "thieving Indians", when the advance unit comes across some OSAGE Indians stealing a herd of cattle on Huckberry Creek, in Indian Territory. A fight begins, and 1 OSAGE is killed, according to Army records.
1884: The Executive Order of March 29, 1884 transfering certain lands for "the use and occupancy of the TURTLE MOUNTAIN Band of CHIPPEWA Indians" will be modified today.
1974: Lines and laws on Colville and Spokane reservation are modified today.
1647: Chief Canonicus, Chief of the NARRAGANSETSs when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, dies today. He is approximately 88 years old.
1722: Germans arrive in Mobile.
1763: Indians attack Fr.Ligonier.
1763: Today, CHIPPEWA Indians will come to Fort Michilimackinac on the straights between upper and lower Michigan. They invite the British soldiers out to watch them play a game of ball with the SACs. The soldiers leave the fort to watch the festivities. They leave the gates to the fort open, and several Indian women enter the fort. When most of the soldiers are watching the ball game, the CHIPPEWAs attack. The CHIPPEWAs will kill over half of the 35 soldiers, but will not bother any of the French traders at the fort.
1782: Col.Willam Crawford, and 250 Pennsylvania militia battle a similar number of Indians at Sandusky, Ohio. The next day, 140 SHAWNEE and Butler's Rangers arrive. Almost all of Crawford's troops are killed. Crawford will be roasted on a stake for revenge for Gnedenhutten.
1816: The WEA and the KICKAPOO sign a treaty today.
1841: Today, during a 2nd SEMINOLE War peace conference, SEMINOLE warrior, and son of Chief Philip, Wildcat (Coacoochee) will be taken prisoner by American forces under Major Thomas Childs.
1869: Today at Picacho Mountain in Arizona, Bugler George Gates and Private Joseph Watson, Company F, 8th cavalry, "killed an Indian warrior and captured his arms." For these actions, they will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1869: At Grinnell Station, Kansas, Indians start destroying the railroad tracks. A military garrison at the station runs them off.
1871: General George Crook takes command of the Department of Arizona, today. He believes the Indians should be treated fairly, but kept under control.
1876: Today marks the start of rosebud sun dance.
1513: Today, forces under Ponce de Leon will fight with CALUSA Indians on the Gulf coast of Florida. In almost 2 dozen canoes, the CALUSA will manage to kill 1 Spaniard before they are driven off. A force 4 times larger will attempt another attack on the Spanish tomorrow; but, the guns of the Spanish will keep the CALUSA at bay.
1728: Today, DELAWARE Chief Sassoonan will address the Pennsylvania Provincial Council. He will complain of German immigrants settling on Indian lands in Tulpehocken valley. The complaint would not be resolved until 1732, when the lands were purchased from the Indians with trading goods.
1762: CHEROKEE Chiefs Ostenaco, Pouting Pigeon and Stalking Turkey arrive in england today. They are en route to visit King George III.
1767: According to some reports, a conference regarding trade regulations is held today by the British and the CREEKs.
1838: Today, SEMINOLE War Chief Halpatter Tustennuggee (Alligator), and 360 of his followers will board ships in Florida. They are en route to Oklahoma as part of the American peace accords after the 2nd SEMINOLE War.
1836: Of the 407 "friendly" SEMINOLEs who left Tampa Bay on April 11, 1836, only 320 will arrive in their new lands in the Indian Territory. Eighty-seven of the SEMINOLEs will die during the rigorous trip.
1846: The POTAWATOMI sign a treaty today (9 stat.853).
1854: The MIAMI sign a treaty today.
1866: This day will start the formal treaty conference at Fort Laramie in southeastern Wyoming. Leaders from many tribes and bands will be present. The purpose of the treaty will be to allow passageway for trails, roads, and railroad lines across indian lands. The meeting will be postponed for almost a week, at Red Cloud's request, to allow for the arrival of additional Indians.
1867: Today, Indians will attack Henshaw Station on Turkey Creek, in Kansas. Four soldiers will be killed in the fighting. Fort Wallace is 9 miles to the west, and the Indians escape before reenforcemens can arrive. The Indians also make off with many horses.
1879: General Terry sends a message to General Miles: "drive the SIOUX back to Canada.
1880: Major Albert Morrow, and 4 Troops of the 9th Cavalry, attack Victorio's Indians at Cook's Canyon, in new mexico. Ten Indians are killed, including one of Victorio's sons. Three "hostiles" are wounded, and lots of livestock are seized.
1943: Inquiries are made into legal "jurisdiction of the South Dakota courts to prosecute Indians for violations of the state game laws when such violations occured on allotted lands within the boundaries of the original Lake Traverse Reservation."
1687: According to some sources, an agreement of alliance is reached today between representatives of the "FIVE NATIONS" and the British colonies in New York.
1838: The first group of CHEROKEEs force to emigrate to the Indian Territory are loaded on boats, today, at Ross's Landing (present day Chattanooga), Tennessee. The 800 CHEROKEEs will be guarded by soldiers led by Lt.Edward Deas. 489 CHEROKEEs will reach Fort Coffee, in eastern Indian Territory, in late June. Many of the CHEROKEE escaped while en route.
1862: Bear's Rib is killed at Ft. Pierre.
1885: Sitting Bull signs contract today to work in Buffalo Bill"s Wild West Show.
1868: On this date, Captain D.Monahan, and troops from Troops G and I, 3rd Cavalry, leave Fort Sumner, in western New Mexico. The troops are chasing a group of NAVAJO Indians, who have been accused of killing 4 settlers about 12 miles from the fort. After following their trail for 100 miles, the army surprises the NAVAJOs, who are in a ravine. The Army reports killing 3 Indians, and wounding 11; the rest escape. No soldiers are killed.
1870: The District of New Mexico's Chief engineering officer is attacked by Indians, while surveying near Fort Selden, in southern New Mexico. The post's cavalry will pursue the Indians. No one, on either side will be hurt. In Indian Territory (Oklahoma), Indians make several attacks on 2 wagon trains near Camp Supply in the southwest corner of Arizona. Two indians will be injured, and several mules will be run off.
1870: The mMssouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad crosses the northern border of Indian Territory, headed south. This will bring more settlers to the area.
1962: The Ft. Apache Scout is first published.
1962: Leo Johnson of Oklahoma becomes the first American Indian to graduate from the United States Air Force Academy.
1970: PIT RIVER Indians attempt to occupy Mt. Lassen.
1971: A group of Indians set up a camp on Mt.Rushmore to protest treaty violations. Several will be arrested today for misdemeanor charges of climbing the monument.
1984: The Senate decides to have a permanent Indian Commission.
1494: The "new world" divided by the Catholic church.
1539: Juan Ortiz was a Spaniard who had been on Narvaez' expedition to France in 1528. He was captured by Indians. He would escape from his captors, and live with the MOCOCO Indians. Upon de Soto's arrival, the MOCOCO send Ortiz to mediate with de Soto. De Soto would be relieved to have someone who could speak the native language. Today, the MOCOCO will meet with de Soto and agree to a peace between them.
1706: According to some sources, an agreement regarding friendship and trade regulations is made today between reprsenattives of the British in Pennsylvania and the CONESTOGA, POTOMAC and SHAWNEE Indians.
1803: A treaty with the DELAWARE, SHAWNEE, MIAMI, KASKASKIA, KICKAPOO, PIANKASHAW, POTAWATOMI, WEA and 2 other Indian Nations is concluded today at Fort Wayne on the Miami River. It will included changes in boundary lines from those established in the Greenville Treaty. Lands will be ceded by both sides. The United States gets the salt springs of Saline Creek, and the Indians are guaranteed to get 150 bushels of salt annually. The United States will get the right to have land to build inns for travelers on roads through Indian country. If any ferries are built across rivers in the area, the Indians will not have to pay to use them. The treaty is signed by William Henry Harrison, and 15 Indians.
1838: SEMINOLE Chief King Philip is en route to the Indian Territory, when he dies today, just before reaching his new lands.
1855: Head Chief of the NEZ PERCE, Lawyer, signs the Walla Walla Treaty today. Other Indian leaders will sign the treaty in the next few days.
1866: Chief Seattle dies.
1876: Today, General Terry, and his troops will establish a base camp, for operations against the "hostiles", at the mouth of the Powder River.
1945: Sacred arrows are used by the CHEYENNE.
1713: According to some sources, a peace agreement will be reached today between representatives of the TUSCARORA and the British in North Carolina.
1871: When confronted at Fort Sill, in south-central Indian Territory, about knowing anything about the attack on the wagons loaded with corn on May 15th on the Butterfield trail, Satanta said he was the leader of the raid. Satanta tells the agent that Santak, Big Tree, and others were with him. General Sherman places the 3 Indians under arrest and handcuffed. While being transported back to Fort Richardson in north-central Texas, Satank manages to work free from his handcuffs. He then attacks a guard with a hidden knife. Satank grabs a rifle from another guard, but he is shot and killed by the remaining soldiers. His body will be thrown in a ditch, and the group will continue to Texas.
1870: In the panhandle area of Indian Territory, near Camp Supply, Indians attack a government wagon train guarded by cavalry. During the fighting, 3 Indians were killed, and 10 were wounded. Three soldiers were wounded. On the same road nearby, Indians attacked a mail escort. One soldier was wounded here as well. Three Indians were killed, and 5 were wounded. A skirmish also occurred between Fort Dodge and Camp Supply. Indians fought Lt.John Bodamer, and Troops F and H, 10th Cavalry. Two soldiers, and 3 Indians were wounded. Near Fort McPherson, in central Nebraska, on the same day, Lt.Earl Thomas, and Troop I, 5th Cavalry, pursue Indians who were marauding in the area. Although the Indians escape, the troops destroy their village.
1874: Cochise dies today.
1876: General Crook's combined forces establish a base camp at Goose Creek, today, after having left Fort Fetterman, in southeastern Wyoming, on May 29, 1876.
1878: Near South Mountain, in southern Idaho, Buffalo Horn, and approximately 60 BANNOCK Indians, fight with Captain Harper's volunteers, and scouts from Captain Bernard's troops. Two soldiers are killed. Buffalo Horn is fatally wounded.
1880: President Hayes, by Executive Order today, establishes the HAVASUPAI (SUPPAI) Reserve. It will be 60 square miles in area. The reserve will be added to on November 23, 1880, and March 31, 1882.
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