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March 1st to 8th in North American Indian History by Phil Konstantin
The U.S. Articles Of Confederation are now in effect.
in the past few days, the CHICKAMAUGAs have staged several successful raids on european settlements. Last night they started a victory dance. Chief Dragging Canoe will dance the night though. This morning, Dragging Canoe will die at the approximate age of 62. He will be replaced as War Chief by John Watts (Young Tassel).
According to a Georgia law, today ios the deadline for all whites to be out of CHEROKEE lands deadline.
Today, a large group of CREEK Indian leaders will leave Alabama to go to Washington,D.C., to, again, protest Alabama laws. Secretary of War, Lewis Cass, again, tells them their only hope is to go west. The federal government cannot help them.
One of the first books for Indians about Christianity is published.
Today, Governor McDougal, of California, will write to the President stating there are over 100,000 hostile Indians in California. He will inform the President that an uprising is going on. This information is false, and the Governor never specifies who's revolting or where the uprising are located. He requests permission to call out the militia as U.S. troops.
A big "peace" conference is begun today by General William S. "White Whiskers" Harney.
Not waiting for Captain Jack to meet with the Commissioners, Hooker Jim, and his followers went to the Fairchild ranch to talk directly to them. Hooker jim told them he wished to surrender as a prisoner-of-war. While in the camp, Hooker Jim would meet an Oregon settler who said they would take them to Oregon to be tried for murder. Jim, and his followers, fled the camp and returned to the lava beds. They would warn Captain Jack not to meet with the Commissioners because it was a trap.
General George Crook's forces of 10 troops of the 2nd and 3rd Cavalry, and 2 companies of infantry, leave Fort Fetterman in east-central Wyoming, to look for "hostiles" near the sources of the Powder, Tongue and the Rosebud Rivers.
An Act is passed today, which enables the President to consolidate tribes, or agencies, without the Indians consent. The government will use this law to take more lands when they want to intimidate the Indians during negotiations.
A Congressional Act today will set aside lands in the BLACKFEET Indian Reservation, Montana, for the purposes of establishing townsites.
Today, Executive Order Number 1172 will be issued. It will modify some of the land holdings within the MESCALERO APACHE Indian Reservation.
Sam Houston is born. He would live with the CHEROKEEs for many years, where he is called Raven.
The U.S. acknowledges old land grants.
Mose Daniels, and 924 fellow CHEROKEEs arrive in the Indian territory after their forced emigration. Forty-eight members of this group will have died on the march.
An act is passed today which will purchase a reserve for SAUK and FOX of 4.5 square miles.
An agreement has been reached between the United States and the "SHAWNEE Tribe of Indians."
The SEVEN Bands of UTE treaty is signed today.
The Secretary of War is impeached for taking bribes to make political appointments.
Indian lands goes public.
The NAVAJO Code Talker Monument is erected.
Today, Ponce de Leon will leave Puerto Rico. His destination is Florida and the fountain of youth. De Leon will claim Florida for Spain.
De Soto has found some gold in one the southern Florida Indian villages he has "discovered." Today, he will break his winter camp at Iniahica, near present day Tallahassee, and begin the 2nd season of his expedition, searching for gold in the north.
Fearing an English take over of the Mississippi Valley, Frenchman Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville is granted permission to establish a series of forts along the lower Mississippi River. Today, he will begin his voyage up the Mississippi.
An Act of Congress, today, gives the KASKASKIA Indians a 320 acre tract of land near the KASKASKIA township.
The United States starts its Indian "civilization" program.
the Supreme Court issues an opinion on the CHEROKEEs today.
Today, Dr.John Young will load 466 CHEROKEEs, and 5 CREEKs, onto 11 boats at the site of Chattanooga, Tennessee. They will be the first CHEROKEEs to emigrate to Indian Territory by the government under the New Echota treaty. Included in the group is Chief Major Ridge (Kahnungdaclageh). Half of the CHEROKEEs are children. They will reach Fort Coffee in eastern Indian Territory on March 29th.
An Act is passed by Congress, today, which gives the President, or the Secretary of War, discretionary power to pay annuities to people other than tribal chiefs. With Indian consent, the President can also spend the annuities to promote the prosperity and happiness of the tribe. No monies will be given to intoxicated persons. It also authorizes funds to pay for the Texas treaty signed at Council Springs.
The Home Department gets the Bureau of Indian Affairs from war dept - p.135
The Idaho Territory bill passes and funding is oked to finance new treaty meetings.
A governmental Act (13 stat.,559), establishes the Colorado River agency. It will be 376 square miles in size, and be home to CHEMEHUEVI, WALAPAI, KOWIA, COCOPA, MOHAVE, and YUMA Tribes.
The House is unhappy because they are not involved in the treaty making process, only the Senate votes. They pass an Act whereby Indian nations will not be considered sovereign nations. The act reads that the Indians would not be "acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty."
Congress passes an act to remove certain lands from the Round Valley Reservation in Endicino County, California. President Grant will issue an Executive Order, based on this act, on April 8th, 1873.
The federal government passed an act today which extended the homestead act to Indians who gave up their tribal affiliations. The head of the household would be entitled to 160 acres.
An order is issued today modifying the boundaries of the ZUNI PUEBLO Reservation in New Mexico Territory.
Congress passes an act today titled "an act making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses of the indian department".
Today, Congress will pass a law which will purchase the Cherokee Strip (6,574,487 acres) for $8,595,736.12, or approximately $1.31 an acre. The government basicallly forced the CHEROKEE Nation to sell the land. The "run" for the Cherokee Strip will be held on September 16, 1893.
The Federal government dissolves the CHEROKEE Tribal government.
Today, an Act of Congress will set aside land on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana to establish the townsite of Lodge Pole.
Today a Congressional Act (44 stat.1347; U.S.C. 398d) will be passed. It will give the Commissioner of indian Affairs the authority to set aside lands to be used as reservations.
Today, by Proclamation Number 2036, the President announces the establishment of the Canyon de Chelly National Monument in the NAVAJO Indian Reservation in northeastern Arizona.
The Alaska Ntive Claims Act is amended.
CHICKASAW Indians will attack de Soto's forces today. They will set fire to the huts de Soto's men are using. Approximately 12 Spaniards will be killed. They will lose a considerable number of their horses, and livestock. The CHICKASAW will suffer only minimal losses.
Today, the CANARSEE Indians will negotiate a peace with the Dutch in Fort Amsterdam. The CANARSEE are the Indians who sold Manhattan to Peter Minuit for $24 in trinkets, even though they did not own it.
ASSINIBOIS try to steal MINNETAREE horses.
President Jackson gives his "just policy for Indians" speech today.
Major James Brisbin, and his troops from Fort Ellis, Montana, arrive at Fort Pease, just north of present day Custer in central Montana, where 46 people have been besieged by Indians. By the time of Brisbin's Rescue, 6 whites have been killed, 8 wounded, 13 have escaped. Brisbin escorts the remaining 19 to safety.
The Coolidge dam is dedicated. It swamps Indian lands.
The Spanish Governor is now in Louisiana.
what was believed to be a SHAWNEE war party is roaming the woods on northwestern Virginia. Today, they come across the Thomas family farm on Booth's Creek. The war party will kill 8 members of the family and take 1 small boy prisoner.
A new General is appointed in the Northwest Territory.
Today the Supreme Court decided the case of the CHEROKEE Nation v. Georgia. The court decided that the CHEROKEEs are not a "foreign state", and therefore the court has no jurisdiction in the dispute. However, the court does decide that the CHEROKEEs are a distinct political society capable of governing itself, and managing its own affairs. (See March 3, 1832)
James Brown, and 717 fellow CHEROKEEs will arrive in their new lands in the Indian Territory today. Thirty-four deaths will occur on the trip.
Today marks the end of the peace conference heading by General Harney.
The Confederacy appoints, today, Albert Pike, of Arkansas, to negotiate treaties with the Indians in the region. He will establish the "United Nations of the Indian Territory" as an Indian confederacy to oppose the government of Abraham Lincoln.
Today, the United States Senate will ratify the treaty signed by the United States and the OGLALA Band, UPPER YANKTONAI Band of the SIOUX Indians on October 28, 1865 (14 stat.747).
Lt.samuel miller, nine soldiers of the 9th Mounted Infantry, and 8 Indian scouts, discover a party of "hostiles" 30 miles west of the Rosebud River, in Montana. During the subsequent fighting, 2 scouts, and 3 "hostiles" are killed. The Indians camp is destroyed, and significant stores of supplies, and ammunition, are seized. The "hostiles" escape across the Yellowstone River.
The city of Phoenix offers a $200 bounty for dead Indians.
The british have established a fort and settlement 96 miles along the trail from Keowee (Fort Prince George), South Carolina to the CHEROKEE villages. The settlement will be called Ninety-six, South Carolina. Last month, British forces killed CHEROKEE hostages at Fort Prince George. Seeking revenge, today, a force of 200 CHEROKEE warriors, led by Chief Oconostota, will attack the fort, which is defended by a few dozen soldiers. A few people will be killed on both sides; but, the CHEROKEEs will eventually give up the assault.
Today, 70 SHAWNEE warriors, led by Chief Blackfish, will attack some settlers near Harrodsburg, Kentucky. One of the men, James Ray, managed to escape and warn the settlement of the war party. The SHAWNEE will attack Harrodsburg tomorrow.
According to Lewis and Clark, the MINNETAREEs burn the prairie for food.
Heads of the CHEROKEE Nation, Tocha Lee, and Chu Lioa, write a letter today for publication. It is addressed to the citizens of the United States. The letter expresses the CHEROKEEs' concern for the actions of whites against them. "Backwoodsmen" continue to attack the CHEROKEEs, with little fear of reprisal. The CHEROKEEs wish the United States well in their ongoing battle with Britain. They also ask for the assistance of the United States to stop the crimes against them.
On February 27, General Edmund Gaines' troops were forced into a battle on the Withlacoochee River, in central Florida, with the SEMINOLESs. They have continued fighting until today when the SEMINOLEs request a conference. While the talks are being held, General Duncan Clinch, and his troops will arrive. These troops will be a decisive force, and the battle will break off and the SEMINOLEs will retreat.
General Thomas Jesup and SEMINOLE Chiefs Jumper and Holahtochee sign a treaty today to end the fighting and agreeing to their removal to Indian Territory. Jesup agrees to allow the free blacks living with the SEMINOLEs to go with them to their new lands. The SEMINOLEs agree to come to Tampa Bay by April 10, 1836, for transport. The SEMINOLEs agree to having Chief Mikanopy, who is not at the conference, held as a hostage until the transport is arranged. Mikanopy will turn himself in several days later.
Today and tomorrow, the NEZ PERCE arrive for a conference at Waiilatpu.
The SAC and FOX sign a treaty today.
After surrendering to the Army at Forts Canby and Wingate, on the New Mexico-Arizona line, the first group of NAVAJOs set out, on this date, to the Bosque Redondo Reservation. Over 1400 would make this first trip with several dying while on the trail.
The WINNEBAGO sign a treaty today.
After hearing from Hooker Jim of the "trap" at the Fairchild ranch, Captain Jack has his sister Mary Write a letter to the commissioners. The letter states Captain Jack's wish for both sides to forget the killings on both sides and for the slate to be wiped clean. Captain Jack wants no more killing, but he will not give up his people to be hanged. He states he has not asked for the whites who have killed his people.
Lands have been set aside for townsites in the BLACKFEET Indian Reservation in Montana. Today, by Public Land Order 2290, "certain undisposed of lands within the townsite of "Blackfoot" will be returned to tribal ownership.
President Lyndon Johnson starts a new Indian program.
Giovanni da Verrazano, sailing for France, anchors near Wilmington, North Carolina, in the "Dauphine".
The Mendoza expedition begins.
Today, Congress authorized Col.Nathaniel Gist to organize, and equip, 200 Indians in Virginia, and the Carolinas, to fight in the Revolutionary War.
Yesterday, a SHAWNEE war party of 70 men, led by Chief Blackfish, attacked a few men while en route to Harrodsburg. One of the men, James Ray, escaped and ran to warn the settlement. Today, the SHAWNEEs reach Harrodsburg and attack. With the forewarning, the settlers hold off the SHAWNEEs, who prepare for a siege. The SHAWNEE will eventually give up the siege.
Monrovian missionaries had converted many DELAWARE, MAHICAN, and MUNSEE Indians to Christianity. They had established villages in Pennsylvania in 1746, but moved to the Muskingum River in Ohio in 1773 after their old villages were attacked by other Indian tribes. Unfortunately, at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary war, the "Moravian" Indians found themselves directly between American and British forces, and their allies. Both sides believe they "Moravians" were helping the other. Today, Col.David Williamson, and American soldiers from Pennsylvania, surrounded the peaceful village of Gnadenhutten (the 2nd village of the name, the 1st had been in Pennsylvania), and herded the occupants into 2 houses. While some of the militia refused to participate, the majority of the soldiers decided to kill all of the "Moravians." After allowing them to have a final prayer, the soldiers killed the 96 Indian men, women, and children in cold blood. (Some sources say this happened on the 8th.)
Today, the CHICKASAW Council will appoint a commission to go to Washington,D.C. to discuss a removal treaty. They will eventually sign a treaty on March 24,1834.
The Battle of Pea Ridge takes place through tomorrow. Many Indians will be fighting on both sides of the Civil War battle.
Today during a skirmish with APACHEs in Arizona, Sergeant James T. Daniels, Company L, 4th Cavalry, will earn the Congressional Medal of Honor for "untiring energy and gallantry under fire." Sergeant William McBryar, Company K, 10th Cavalry, will also win the medal for "coolness, bravery and marksmanship." Indian scout Rowdy will the nation's highest award for bravery.
New York State wishes to build a dam which will flood lands belonging to the TUSCARORAs (1 of the 6 IROQUOIS Nations). The Indians take to issue to court as a violation of the treaty of 1794. After winning several lower court decisions, the Supreme Court, today, issues a 6-to-3 decision against the TUSCARORAs. In the dissenting opinion, Justice Hugo Black says, "I regret that this court is the agency that breaks faith with this dependent people. Great nations, like great men, should keep their word."
Raymond Little Thunder has been murdered. Local Indians feel that local authorities are not doing enough to bring the murderer to justice. Today, 1000 Indians stage a march on Gordon, Nebraska to demonstrate their dissatisfaction.
By today, almost 4000 CREEKs are assembled near Montgomery, Alabama, in preparations for them to be removed to Indian Territory. Most of these are family members of the CREEKs fighting for the government against the SEMINOLEs in Florida. The government had promised to protect them in Alabama until the CREEK soldiers returned. The government would not live up to this promise.
The QUINAULT and QUILEUTE treaties signed on July 1, 1855 and January 25, 1856 will be ratified today by the United States Senate.
The WINNEBAGO sign a treaty reagrding the Omaha reservation.
Company K, 5th Mounted Infantry, from Fort Keogh, in east-central Montana, has been pursuing a band of Indians with stolen horses for 60 miles. They manage to cut the Indians off, and capture 13 horses, and 16 mules, north of the Yellowstone River.
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