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May 1st to 8th in American Indian History by Phil Konstantin
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Panfilo de Narvaez, and 300 men, start marching inland today from near Tampa Bay.
Today, de Soto's expedition reaches the river across from the village of Cofitachequi. Among the high Chiefs who are rowed across the river to meet de Soto, is the "Lady of Cofitachequi". She would be carried on a litter. The "lady" would speak with de Soto, and give him a string of pearls. Eventually, de Soto's men would "liberate" approximately 200 pounds of pearls from a temple in the town. It is believed this village was near present day Silver Bluff, South Carolina.
After numerous incidents, and incursions on both sides, English settlers declare war on the PEQUOT Indians today. Most of the fighting will take place in Connecticut and Massachusetts.
According to some sources, a peace agreement and the delivery of captives is agreed upon today by representatives of the "FIVE NATIONS" and the British in New York.
The Mallet brothers explore the Pecos valley.
According to some reports, a land cession agreement is reached today between representatives of Great Britain and the CREEKs.
The CHICKASAW treaty of October 24, 1801 is ratified today.
As a "White Stick" CREEK, Chief William McIntosh fought with Andrew Jackson at Horseshoe Bend. He was eventually promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. Although he once was a principle supporter of a law requiring death for any CREEKs who sell their lands, McIntosh helped to prepare the documents which transferred the last of the CREEK lands east of the Mississippi River. Before accepting payment for CREEK lands, McIntosh was warned that the law would be carried out by anti-removal CREEKs. McIntosh ignored the warnings. Today, Chief Menewa, and over 100 OCKFUSKEE CREEK warriors surround McIntosh's home. They set fire to the building. When McIntosh runs out of the house, he is shot to death.
A census of the CREEK upper towns shows 14,142 people, including 445 Negro slaves.
According to a government memorandum issued today, the CHEROKEEs claim to own 7,200,000 acres of land east of the Mississippi River.
Col.Nelson Miles, troops F,G,H, and L, 2nd Cavalry, Companies E, and H, 5th Infantry, and Companies E,F,G, and H, 22nd Infantry, mount a campaign to find "Lame Deer", and his primarily MINNECONJOUs followers who have changed their minds about surrendering. Miles will start moving up the Tongue River to search for the escapees.
An order will be issued today to resolve some conflicts in the boundary lines established for the ZUNI PUEBLO Reservation in the Executive Order of March 16, 1877.
Congress creates the Ft. Belknap reservation.
The SAN FELIPE PUEBLO celebrates St. Philip Day and do the Green Corn dance.
The Louisiana purchase is signed.
Secretary of War, Lewis Cass, assigns Col.John Abert, and General Enoch Parsons, to approach the CREEKs about a new treaty to start the removal to Indian Territory immediately.
The treaty of February 19, 1867 with the SISSETON and the WAHPETON SIOUX will be publically proclaimed, today.
Indians ambush a wagon trail guarded by soldiers near San Augustine, New Mexico today. During fierce fighting, 2 soldiers and 5 Indians are killed. Four soldiers and 10 Indians will be wounded according to the official Army report on the incident. The Indians will be unsuccessful in their attempt to seize the wagon train.
Indians are raiding settlements near Fort Seldon, in southern New Mexico, today. According to Army records, cavalry troops will chase them for 280 miles, but they will not catch them.
Today, the treaty agreement of February 19, 1867 between the United States and the "SISSETON and WAHPETON Bands of DAKOTA or SIOUX Indians" will be amended. The annual appropriations for the Sisseton and Devil's Lake Agencies.
Lt.Quincy Gillmore, and troopers from the 10th Cavalry, at a band of "hostiles" between the Red River, and the Big Wichita, in Texas. No casualties are reported on either side.
SIOUX warriors steal horses near Ft. Pease.
Today the "trust period on allotments made to KICKAPO Indians on the Kickapoo Reservation" in Kansas will be extended.
Today through tomorrow, the Pope divides the "new world" between the Spanish and the Portuguese.
Lewis and Clark meet NEZ PERCE Chief, Weahkoonut (Bighorn).
Indians stage a raid on settlements near Cimmaron, New Mexico, today. Three settlers are killed, and 950 head of livestock are seized. Cavalry troops will pursue the Indians, and capture 22. The Army will also recover 757 head of the livestock.
John Clum was the agent on the San Carlos Reservation. He was able to establish a livable system for the APACHEs living here. He also established an Indian police force, which was an unheard of plan for the era. When the CHIRICAHUA Indians began get beyond the control of their agent, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs decided to have Clum take over. On this date, Clum received a telegram with orders to go to the Chiricahua Reservation, relieve the local agent, and to bring the CHIRICAHUAs to the San Carlos Reservation in the White Mountains of Arizona.
At the conference at Lapwai, the NEZ PERCE agree to move to a reservation.
American troops have chased "renegade APACHEs" into Mexico. Today in a fight in the Pinito mountains of Sonora, Mexico, 2nd Lieutenant Powhatan H. Clarke will earn a Congressional Medal of Honor for rescuing an injured soldier.
Today, armed federal troops will force the CUPENO group of Indians to relocate from Warners Hot Springs to the Pala Reservation in northern San Diego County, California. The CUPENOs were only allowed to take what they could personally carry on the 3 day trip through the mountains. Many lost most of their possessions. Several of the CUPENOs were able to escape and joined other Indians at other reservations in the area.
The COCHITI and TAOS PUEBLOS celebrate Santa Cruz day.
Today, Sir Alexander Cuming, and 7 prominent CHEROKEEs will leave Charlestown, South Carolina, en route to visit King George II of England. The 2 CHEROKEE Chiefs in the group are Oukah-Ulah and Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter).
A settlement has been established by the McAfee brothers near Harrodsburg, Kentucky at the Boiling Springs of the Salt River. Today, Indians will attack the station. One settler, and one indian, will be killed in the fighting. The Indians will disperse when reinforcements arrive from Harrodsburg.
The CHICKASAW treaty of October 24, 1801, and the CHOCTAW treaty of December 17, 1801, are publically proclaimed today.
The PASCAGOULA, and the BILOXI, Indians sell their lands along the gulf coast to "Miller and Fulton". Miller and Fulton are among the first settlers in the Rapides Parish area. The documents, signed by 6 Indians, will be confirmed today. The PASCAGOULAs will move to the Red River area.
Baptist, and 123 other CHOCTAWs, from near Mobile, Alabama, arrive in eastern Indian Territory, at Fort Towson.
After the Minnesota uprising of the SANTEE SIOUX, and their subsequent defeat, their lands were forfeited. The surviving Indians, including those who had opposed the uprising and helped the whites, were ordered to be shipped to a reservation in Dakota Territory. On this date, 770 SANTEE SIOUX boarded a steamboat in St. Paul for the journey west. Eventually 1,300 SANTEE SIOUX will be transported to an area which would hardly support life. During the first year, 300 SANTEE would die.
Captain D.S.Gordon, commanding Troop D, 2nd Cavalry, engages in a fierce battle with Indians near Miner's Delight, Wyoming. During the engagement, 7 Indians will be killed, and one wounded. Two soldiers, including Lt.Charles B. Stambaugh, are killed.
Captain Philip L.Lee, and Troop G, 10th Cavalry, fight with Indians near Lake Quemado, Texas. Four Indians, and 1 soldier are killed. Six Indians, and 69 head of livestock are captured. Twelve lodges,and numerous articles of Indian property, are destroyed.
Under authority of an Act of Congress (24 stat l. 388), an Executive Order is issued today which will extend the trust period on land allotments to the SAC and FOX Indians of Kansas and Nebraska.
Lands on the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana have been set aside to establish townsites. Today, as reported in Federal Register Number 26fr04015, "a number of undisposed of lots within the townsites" will be returned to tribal ownership by the Confederated SALISH and KOOTENAI Tribes on the Flathead Reservation.
Coronado leave Cicuye to go to Texas.
The CHEROKEE "Dumpling Creek treaty is signed.
William Augusta Bowles was an adventurer in the southeastern part of the United States. With CREEK and CHEROKEE supporters, he proclaimed a new nation, Muscogee, out of lands claimed by Spain along the gulf coast, with himself as "Director-General". Today, Bowles will declare war on Spain, and begin a campaign against their outposts in his "nation."
UTE land is sold today.
The 3rd Cavalry will engage "hostile Indians" today in the Whetstone Mountains of Arizona. For "gallantry in action'" Sergeant John Mott, and Privates Hermann Fichter, John Kilmartin, Daniel Miller, and John Yount, Company F, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Sergeant John Marshall, and men from Troop A, 10th Cavalry, attack a group of Indians at Battle Point, Texas. One Indian is wounded, and his horse is seized.
Sitting Bull escapes to Canada.
President Chester Arthur, by Executive Order, today, adds additional land to the Gila River Reserve in the Pima Agency, for the PIMA and MARICOPA Indian reservation. This reservation was established on February 28, 1859. Lands already homesteaded in the new areas will be exempted.
Today will be the last fight by United States Army Indian scouts, who are part of the 11th Cavalry. The scouts will fight Pancho Villa's troops at Ojos Azules ranch in Mexico. None of the scouts are killed, but Villa loses 44 men.
The first American Indian wins a Pulitzer Prize today.
The Kicking Horse Regional Manpower Center, in Ronab, Montana, is dedicated today. It is the first all Indian job corp center.
Purchase of Manhattan: the SHINNECOCK or CANARSEE Indians, according to which source you believe, sell it to Peter Minuit.
As of today, all non-profit government trading houses will be closed on or near Indian lands. All future trading posts will be commercial enterprises.
The western CHEROKEE will sign a treaty today (7 stat.311).
Today, the CHEROKEE Nation will open its men's seminary (high school) near Park Hill in the eastern part of Indian Territory. The CHEROKEEs would provide all of the funding for the school. The female's seminary will open tomorrow.
The DELAWARE sign a treaty today (10 stat.1048).
Gold is discovered in Colorado.
Lt.J.D.Stevenson, and Troops E, and K, 8th Cavalry, are at Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico Territory, when they are attacked by UTE Indians. According to Army reports, both sides lose 1 killed, and 1 wounded.
Elements of the 1st Cavalry are engaging "hostile Indians" in the Santa Maria Mountains of Arizona, today, bugler Samuel Hoover, Company A, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry in action" during today's activity.
Crazy Horse and Dull Knife surrender.
Captain Philip L.Lee, and Troop G, 10th Cavalry, fight with more Indians, in the Canyon Resecata. Three Indian lodges are burned.
David Sohappy dies.
Pontiac will attempt to enter Fort Detroit with a large group of armed Indians. However, his plans will be leaked to the fort commanders, and they will only meet with Pontiac, and a few Chiefs. The next day, he attempts to distract the soldiers with a inter-tribal lacrosse game outside the fort, but the soldiers will not be distracted. Pontiac will delay his plans for a few days. Pontiac will start the siege of Fort Detroit. The siege will last until late October.
Yesterday, the CHEROKEE Nation opened a seminary (high school) for men. Today, they will open a seminary for females, north of Park Hill on the Cherokee Reservation in Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Some of the required courses will include: algebra, arithmatic, botany, geography, grammar, latin and vocal music.
A treaty with four different Indian Nations is signed today in Washington D.C.
An act today will establish the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana.
Lt.Col.William Carlin, and Company B, and C, 6th Infantry, and Company H, 7th Infantry, and REE Indian scouts, are stationed at Fort Abraham Lincoln (formerly Fort McKeen), near Bismarck, North Dakota. 100 SIOUX attack the fort today. The soldiers repel the attack with 1 soldier killed, and 3 wounded.
Col.Nelson Miles, and his force of 4 Cavalry Troops, and 6 Infantry Companies, finds Lame Deer, and his followers on the Muddy Creek, near the Rosebud. Nelson surprises the village with a charge. Lame Dear, and Iron Star, parley with Miles about a peaceful settlement, but after they return, fight erupts, again. The battle continues, and proceeds toward the Rosebud River. Lame Deer, Iron Star, and 12 other Indians will be killed. Four soldiers are killed, and seven are wounded. Almost 450 mounts are seized. The camp supplies, and many lodges are also captured. Corporal Harry Garland and Private William Leonard, Company L, and Private Samuel Phillips, Company H, 2nd Cavalry, will win the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry in action" as a part of today's battle. Company L First Sergeant Henry Wilkens, and Farrier William H. Jones, will also be awarded the Medal of Honor for their gallantry in today's battle, and for actions against the NEZ PERCE on August 20, 1877.
Congress passes an Act removing tax exemption restrictions on lands owned by members of the "five civilized tribes", who are less than one-half blood. Other minor matters are also modified.
Today, de Doto's expedition will come upon the Mississippi River near the Indian village of Quizquiz, in north-western Mississippi.
The French have learned that the NATCHEZ Indians have killed 5 Frenchmen. The French commander Bienville has established a makeshift fort on an island on the Mississippi River near a TONICA village. Bienville has the TONICAs summons the NATCHEZ for a conference. Believing that the NATCHEZ are planning a surprise attack, Bienville plans his own surprise. Today, 32 NATCHEZ row up to Bienville's camp. After a brief period of ceremonies, Bienville has the NATCHEZ surrounded, and manacled. Bienville informs the NATCHEZ Chiefs that they must bring him the heads of those who killed the 5 Frenchman, and those Chiefs who ordered it done. Bienville threatens the NATCHEZ with destruction if they do not comply with his demands. The next morning, a group of the NATCHEZ, and a dozen French soldiers set out for the NATCHEZ village (see 5/14).
According to some reports, a peace agreement is reached today by representatives of the British and the DELAWAREs.
Congress passes The Land Ordinance of 1785.
The Draft Act is issued against the Indians.
CHEROKEE Chief richard fields, and many of his CHEROKEE followers in Texas, have decided to join the Fredonian revolution against Mexico. After a few efforts of rebellion are thwarted, fields will reconsider his participation in the revolt. Today, several anti-revolution CHEROKEEs will kill fields for his part in the revolt.
Today, cantonment Leavenworth is established as a military base to protect travelers on the Santa Fe trail from "hostile Indians." Eventually renamed Fort Leavenworth, the base will house many Army expeditions against the Indians of the central plains. The fort is the oldest permanent U.S. Army military base west of the Missouri River.
Lt.Joseph Harris, and his contingent of CHEROKEEs who left the Tennessee Cherokee Agency on March 14th, arrive in their new lands in Indian Territory. They will move on to the Dwight Mission.
According to the FBI, at 10:19 A.M. this morning, the occupation of Wounded Knee ended. The occupation started on February 27, 1973.
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