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November 1st to 8th in American Indian History
by Phil Konstantin
1634: Tensions in Massachusetts have been raised because NIANTIC Indians have killed a boat captain named John Stone. Rather than having a war, the NIANTICs, and their allies the PEQUOTs, conclude a peace treaty with the Massachusetts government today.
1784: Tugaloo treaty with the CREEK is signed.
1812: Negotiations have been held between the Lower CREEKs and representative of the John Forbes Company, John Innerarity at their village at Tuckabatchee. Tuckabatchee was near modern-day Tallassee, in central eastern Alabama. Innerarity contends the CREEKs own the company $40,000 for various supplies. The CREEKs felt they have been overcharged, and not getting a fair price for their trade goods. Today, they will reach an agreement to pay the Forbes Company a sum of $21,916.012 over a three year period. Their current government payments for previous land cessessions is $22,000 for the same period of time. This will clear their debts, but will leave them with no outside resources for three years.
1837: The WINNEBAGOs sign a treaty today.
1837: The steamboat Monmouth has 611 CREEK Indians on board heading for Indian Territory. During the night, while traveling upstream in a downstream lane of the Mississippi River, it strikes the Trenton, which is being towed downstream. The Monmouth breaks into two pieces and sinks within a few minutes. 311 CREEKs are drowned. Because of its old age, the Monmouth had been condemned for normal shipping. This did not stop it from being used to transport the CREEKs. Four of Jim Boy's children are among the dead.
1844: CHEROKEEs pass a law saying members of the tribe cannot bet on elections.
1873: Barbed wire is first manufacted.
1874: Elements of the fifth cavalry are scouting near Sunset Pass in Arizona Territory. Lt. King is captured by local Indians. For his actions in rescuing the Lieutenant, Sergeant Bernard Taylor, company a, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1876: Col.Hazen arrives at Ft.Peck, the SIOUX leave.
1877: Lt.John Bullis, the twenty-fourth infantry, and 37 SEMINOLE scouts, skirmish with APACHEs, and other Indians. Army reports contain no further details.
1986: The first National War Monument for Indians is dedicated.
1869: While on patrol in southern Indian Territory, near Fort Sill, troopers recover a white captive from a group of Indians.
1875: Two troops of the tenth cavalry, under twenty-fifth infantry Lt.Andrew Geddes, fight a group of Indians near the Pecos River, in texas. One Indian is killed, and 5 are captured.
1917: Under authority of an Act of Congress (24 stat l. 388-89), an Executive Order will be issued which will extend the trust period for ten years on land allotments made to members of the "PRAIRIE BAND of POTAWATOMI Indians in Kansas."
1972: 500 Indians conclude the "Trail of Broken Treaties" march to Washington, D.C., today. They will seize part of the B.I.A. building until the 8th.
1982: MacDonald loses the NAVAJO tribal Presidency.
1756: Today, DELAWAREs will stage a series of raids in Berks County, Pennsylvania. At least, 7 settlers and 2 Indians will be killed near Fort Lebanon during the fighting.
1757: According to some reports, an agreement covering land cessions, peace and friendship is reached today by representatives of the British in Georgia and the CREEKs.
1762: As a part of the Treaty of Fountainbleau, Spain will acquire all of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi river today for helping France in the Seven Years War, also called the French and Indian war.
1763: Today will mark the beginning of major conference between English representatives and the tribes of the southeast. Over 700 Indians will attend representing the CATAWBASs, CHEROKEEs, CHICKASAWs, CHOCTAWs and CREEKs. Trade issues, inter-tribal conflicts, and tribal boundary lines will be discussed.
1768: The IROQUOIS sell some land today.
1786: The government of Georgia hopes to confirm the CREEK Nation boundaries lines. They will invite CREEK leaders to a conference on Shoulderbone Creek. Only a few chiefs, including Fat King and Tame King, will attend. The Georgia militia will threaten the attendees with execution if they do not agree to boundary lines favorable to Georgia. A treaty is signed under duress today by the CREEK Chiefs attending the meeting. This action by the Georgians will stoke the flames of the CREEK's passions against the settlers.
1791: General Arthur St.Clair has moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River, north of present day Greenville, Ohio. St.Clair is looking for the forces of Little Turtle, who had recently defeated General Josiah Harmar's Army. More than half of St.Clair's forces are "dregs of the earth" who signed on for the $2 a month pay. By this point 600 men had already deserted the original force of 2,000 men. The soldiers are not being paid, and they are underfed. St.Clair's regular Army is having to guard what little supplies they have from the militia forces. St.Clair, feeling he has a good defensive position, will deploy only minimal sentry positions.
1804: A treaty with the CREEKs is signed today on the Flint River. The CREEKs will give up almost two million acres near the Ocmulgee River for $200,000 dollars. This amount would be renegotiated several times in later treaties. The United States was represented by Benjamin Hawkins, the CREEKs by Hopoie Micco.
1804: A treaty is signed today with the SAUK & FOXES in Saint Louis, Louisiana Territory. The tribes will be protected by the United States. New boundary lines will be established. The Indians will receive $2,234.50 in goods now, and $600 to the SAUK and $400 to the FOXES annually. They may hunt on their old lands, as long as it remains government property. Only the President can license traders. Trading-"factory" houses will be established. Peace will be established with the OSAGE tribe. A fort will be built on the Mississippi and the Ouiconsing Rivers. They will cede all of their lands in Illinois (almost 15,000,000 acres). The treaty will be signed by William Henry Harrison, and 5 Indians. Many Indians did not consider the signatories to the treaty as "official" representatives of the tribe. Dissatisfaction with the treaty will lead to "Black Hawk's War."
1813: Col.John Coffee, and almost 1000 men (Americans, CREEKs and CHEROKEEs), have surrounded a the Red Stick CREEK village of Tallasehatchee (Talishatche, Tallushatchee) on the Cousa River, near modern day Anniston, Alabama. At dawn, Coffee's forces attack. The allied forces will kill over 180 of the CREEKs, while losing only 5 of their own men. They also captured seven dozen women and children. Davy Crockett was quoted as saying, "we shot them like dogs."
1864: After having their rations cut, today, the MESCALERO Indians escape from the Bosque Redondo reservation. They will stay away for years.
1874: Col.R.S.MacKenzie and troops from the fourth cavalry, fight with Indians along Los Lagunas Quatro, in Texas. Two Indians are killed, and 19 are captured. Farrier Ernest Veuve, company a, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallant manner in which he faced a desperate Indian."
1875: In a secret Government meeting today in the White House, it is decided to wage war on the Indians who have not accepted and complied with American authority and left the Black Hills. Attending the meeting are several senior Indian Department official, several generals and President Grant.
1969: The Senate declares that Indian education is in bad shape.
1791: MIAMI Chief Little Turtle, and 1,500 MIAMI, DELAWARE, POTAWATOMI, and SHAWNEE warriors have been stalking American General Arthur St. Clair and his force of 2500 men. 300 of the men were militia, and they had camped across a stream from the rest of the force near the site of present day Fort Recovery, Ohio. In a pre-dawn move today, Little Turtle's forces would attack the militia. The militia would be routed, and their retreat would hamper the efforts of the rest of the force. After 3 hours of slaughter, St.Clair managed to affect an escape. 900 of St.Clair's men would die in what has been called the worst defeat in the history of the American Army.
1833: Lt.Rains, Disbursing Agent for the CHOCTAWs, informs General George Gibson today that since the beginning of the fall, approximately 1/5 of the 3000 CHOCTAWs near the Choctaw Agency in Indian Territory, have died from the climate, the flood on the Arkansas River, and no scientific medical care.
1851: One in a series of treaties is signed today by California Indians on the Upper Klamath. The treaty is designed to set aside lands for the Indians and to protect them from angry Europeans.
1854: The CHOCTAWs and the CHICKASAWs sign a treaty today.
1892: Tonight the KIOWAs will observe a total lunar eclipse. It will be depicted on their annual calendar as one of the most significant events of the year.
1968: The Post Office will issue a Chief Joseph stamp today.
1768: The IROQUOIS sell some land today. According to many historians, the treaty signed today at Fort Stanwix, near modern Rome, New York, would cause such anguish among Indian tribes, it would lead to Dunsmore's War. The treaty was signed at a meeting of several thousand Indians.
1775: KAMIAS attack the San Diego Mission.
1783: According to some sources, CHICKASAW Indians, led by Chief Piomingo, will sign a treaty at Nashville today. The treaty will cede land along the Cumberland River to Tennessee.
1857: The TONAWANDA BAND of the SENECA sign a treaty today.
1861: 10,000 Indians leave Oklahoma to avoid Confederates
1862: The SANTEE SIOUX are sentenced today.
1864: Major Edward Wynkoop, is the commander at Fort Lyon, in southeastern Colorado. His friendly, and honorable dealings with the CHEYENNE and ARAPAHO, has angered Colorado leaders. Today, Wynkoop will be relieved as commander of the fort by Major Scott Anthony. One of Anthony's first acts will be to cut the Indians rations.
1868: Red Cloud signs the Bozeman Treaty today.
1874: According to Army records, today in the "staked plaines" of the Texas panhandle, Corporal John W. Comfort, company a, fourth cavalry will earn a Congressional Medal of Honor because he "ran down and killed an Indian."
1528: Today, Cabeza de Vaca, and 80 men of a Spanish expedition, will wash up on Galveston Island, in Texas. Most of his men will eventually die, or become captives. Cabeza de Vaca will march across the continent to California, before he will reach a Spanish outpost. He will be the first "whiteman" that many Indians will see.
1792: Washington will talk about Indians in his fourth address to Congress.
1811: Harrison arrives at Prophet's Town.
1838: The MIAMIs will sign a treaty with the United States today. The Americans will be represented by Abel Pepper.
1864: Col.Kit Carson, and his troops, will leave Fort Bascom, in western New Mexico, en route for the Texas panhandle to "punish" the "hostile" COMANCHEs, and KIOWAs, in the area.
1868: Today, 4 "OGALLALAH SIOUX", including Red Cloud, 2 "BRULE SIOUX", 18 "UNCPAPA SIOUX", 10 "BLACKFEET SIOUX", 5 "CUTHEAD SIOUX", 3 "TWO KETTLE SIOUX", 4 "SANS ARCH SIOUX", and 7 "SANTEE SIOUX" will sign the Fort Laramie treaty.
1874: Lt.H.J.Farnsworth, and 28 men from troop h, eighth cavalry, battle approximately 100 Southern CHEYENNE on McClellan Creek, in Texas. Their report estimates 7 Indians killed, 10 wounded. One soldier is killed, 4 are wounded. Six cavalry horses are also killed in the fight.
1920: Today, the Federal Government will "temporarily withdraw from settlement, sale or other disposition until March 5, 1922" approximately 386.85 acres of land of the ZIA Pueblo in New Mexico Territory.
1794: After over a year of raids by both the Americans and the CHICKAMAUGAs, the CHICKAMAUGAs have been beaten down. In a meeting arranged last month, today, Tennessee Governor William Blount will meet with CHEROKEE and the off-shoot CHICKAMAUGA Chiefs at the Tellico Blockhouse near the Tennessee & North Carolina border. Fouty Chiefs are present, including John Watts (Young Tassel), Hanging Maw, and Bloody Fellow, and they will agree to a peace. They also agree to exchange prisoners on December 31, 1794.
1811: Today, the "Battle of Tippecanoe" will be fought at the juncture of the Tippecanoe, and the Wabash Rivers. Tecumseh's Brother Tenskwatawa, the Prophet, had established a village here, called Prophetstown. The village was designed a place where Indians could return to their natural ways before the coming of the Europeans. At any given time, nearly a 1,000 DELAWARE, KICKAPOO, OJIBWA, OTTAWA, SHAWNEE and WYANDOT Indians lived in the village. General William Henry Harrison, and 1000 soldiers approached the village when they knew Tecumseh was away. The Prophet arranged for a peace conference to be held today. Just before dawn, predicting an easy victory because of his "strong medicine", Tenskwatawa led his followers in an attack on Harrison's camp. Alerted by sentries, the American forces fought back. When the easy victory failed to materialize, and the American bullets did not dissipate in the wind, the Indians lost heart, and were beat back. The Prophet would lose face, and Harrison would destroy his town the next day.
1814: Today, American forces, under Andrew Jackson, will defeat British and "Red Stick" CREEKs in a fight for Pensacola, Florida. The CREEKs will escape to the local woods. Many of the CREEKs will starve while trying to avoid capture.
1825: The SHANEE sign a treaty today. (7 stat.284)
1836: Mexican nationals in California declare the State independent from Mexico. This will last for approximately 1 year.
1868: Indians attack a stagecoach at Coon Creek, in Kansas. They capture a horse in the process.
1804: Today, Indians give Lewis & Clark an ermine.
1874: Lt.F.D.Baldwin, and soldiers from troop d, sixth cavalry, and company d, fifth infantry, attack a Southern CHEYENNE Indian camp near McClellan's Creek, in Texas. Two white girls, Adelaide, and Julia Germaine, 5 and 7 years old, are recused from the Indians during the fight. The Indians still have the girls two older sisters (they will be released in March 1875. The childrens' parents were killed by the Indians during an earlier raid, according to Army reports. The moneys needed to support the children will be deducted from CHEYENNE annual payments according to a Congressional Act.
1956: Today, the Departmental Order of September 1, 1939, which transfered certain lands to the jurisdiction of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the use of NAVAJO Indians will be partially revoked, according to Federal Register number 21FR08953.
1978: The Indian Child Welfare Act takes place today.
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