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October 1st to 8th in American Indian History by Phil Konstantin
1539: Today, de Soto's expedition reaches the APALACHEE village of Ivitachuco (also called Ibitachuco), in north eastern Florida. The spanish will set up camp near the village. Throughout the evening, the Indians will shoot arrows at the Spanish with little effect. The Narvaez Expedition had also visited the village in June 25, 1528, which may somewhat account for the hostile reception de Soto's Expedition will receive.
1728 (through the 5th): According to some sources, a conference on alliance and land cessions will be held for the next 4 days between the British in New York and the "SIX NATIONS."
1776: 1800 virginian arrive in the "overhill" towns, and demand Dragging Canoe, and Alexander Cameron. The two men were leaders of the CHEROKEEs in anti-United States activities during the Revolutionary War. The CHEROKEEs refuse to give them up. The Virginians will burn several towns.
1792: Just after midnight, almost 300 CHEROKEEs, CHICKAMAUGAs, CREEKs and SHAWNEEs will attack Buchanan's Station in the Cumberland region of Tennessee, near Nashville. Led by CHICKAMAUGA Chief John Watts, Kiachatalee, and CREEK Chief Talotiskee. There are only a little over a dozen defenders in the fort. In what would turn out to be a futile effort, many of the Indians are killed by the crack shots within the fort. Almost all of the Indian leaders will be killed, except John Watts, who will be seriously wounded. When the Indians hear the sounds of a relief column coming from Nashville, they retire. None of the defenders of the fort will be killed.
1800: The San Ildefonso Treaty is signed today. A secret part of this treaty signed by France and Spain is for Spain to return the lands in Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to France.
1838: John Benge, and 1,103 CHEROKEEs will leave one of the concentration camps near the Tennessee CHEROKEE Agency today. Benge's group will be the first of several groups who would supervise their own removal to the Indian Territory.
1858: Col.Albert Sidney, four companies from the second cavalry, 135 Indian scouts, and Texas Rangers, totally 350 men, fight Buffalo Hump's 500 COMANCHEs at Rush Springs, in south central Oklahoma. Another source says the Army is led by Captain Earl van Dorn. Fifty-six "hostiles", and 5 soldiers will be killed in the fighting. All 120 of the COMANCHE's lodges will be burned. This campaign will be part of what the Army will call "The Wichita Expedition."
1859: The SAC & FOX sign a treaty today. (15 stat.467) the United States is represented by Alfred Greenwood.
1863: The Western SHOSHONE sign a treaty today.
1873: On this date, there are numerous fights throughout the southwest. Captain G.W.Chilson, and troop c, eighth cavalry, kill 3 Indians, and wound 1, in a fight in the Guadalupe Mountains, in New Mexico Territory. Sergeant Benjamin Mew, and soldiers from company k, twenty-fifth infantry, skirmish with Indians at Central Station, Texas. Also in Texas, a sergeant, and 13 soldiers fight with a band of COMANCHEs. One Indian is reported wounded in this fight.
1879: Captain Francis Dodge, and troop d, ninth cavalry, are patrolling, when couriers from Major Thornburg's troops meet them. Dodge sends the message along, and then pretends to camp for the evening, in case his actions are being observed. After dark, he issues rations for 3 days, and 225 rounds of ammunition. Dodge, and his 37 soldiers, and 4 civilians, the head for Thornburgh's position.
1879: Army scouts capture a woman, and a child, from Victorio's band. The scout will learn of the location of Victorio's camp from the female captive. The Army speeds to the camp, and captures lots of provisions, but, the APACHEs escape into the night.
1886: In Washington Territory is "withdrawn from sale or other disposition, and set apart for the use and occupation of the CHEHALIS Indians by an Executive Order from President Grover Cleveland.
1962: The Institute of American Indian Arts open
1962: The Tundra Times is first published.
1969: In Ridgeville, South Carolina, Marshals will turn Indian parents, and children, away from a local school, today. The Indians wanted to be desegregated. A court order prohibits the Indians from attending white schools.
1990: Starting today, the CHEROKEE Nation will become one of six tribes which have assumed responsibility for the disbursement of Bureau of Indian Affairs funds for their tribe. Prior to this Indian self-governance agreement, the B.I.A. decided how the funds should be spent.
1535: Cartier arrives in the area of what would eventually become Montreal.
1685: According to some sources, an agreement is reached today for the DELEWARE Indians to cede some lands to Pennsylvania.
1696: According to some sources, a peace and alliance agreement is reached today between representatives of the British in New York and the "FIVE NATIONS."
1775: Today, George Galphin is appointed Commissioner of Indian affairs for the southern district by the Continental Congress.
1798: Today, a treaty (7 stat.62) with the CHEROKEEs is signed at Tellico. The treaty refers to the July 2, 1791 Holston River Treaty, and attempts to correct some misunderstandings. It also refers to the June 26, 1794 treaty signed in Philadelphia. All treaties prior to this date are still in effect. Some CHEROKEE lands on the Tennessee River will be ceded. Each party will appoint one person to walk the new survey line. The CHEROKEEs will get $5000 in goods now, and $1000 annually. The Kentucky Road from the Cumberland Mountains to the Tennessee River is to remain safe, and open. The CHEROKEE can hunt on their old lands, if they do so peacefully. Thirty-nine Indians will sign the treaty.
1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin Parke, representing the United States, sign a treaty with the POTAWATOMI & WEA Indians today on the St.Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The tribe will exchange vast holdings in Indiana for an annual payment of $2,500.
1833: Joel Bryan Mayes will become the Chief Justice of the CHEROKEE Supreme Court. In 1887, he will be elected Principal Chief. He will be born today near Cartersville, Georgia.
1858: Having been help prisoner by Army forces under Colonel George Wright since September 23rd, YAKAMA Chief Owhi will attempt to escape from Fort Dalles today. Chief Owhi will be shot and killed.
1863: The RED LAKE & PEMBINA CHIPPEWA sign a treaty today. (3 stat.667)
1868: General William Hazen reports today that 100 Indians have attacked Fort Zarah, near present day Great Bend in central Kansas. The Indians then attack a provision train, and a ranch 8 miles away. The Indians will make off with almost 200 animals. General Alfred Sully reports that Indians have attacked a wagon train between Fort Larned and Fort Dodge, in Kansas. Three citizen will be killed, and 3 wounded.
1872: On this date, Fort McKeen (later called Fort Abraham Lincoln), in central North Dakota, is attacked by approximately 300 SIOUX Indians. According to Army reports, 1 soldier is wounded, and 3 REE Indian scouts are killed.
1879: Captain Francis Dodge reaches the survivors of Major Thornburgh's troops under siege on the Milk River, in Colorado, by "hostile" UTE Indians. Sergeant Henry Johnson, company d, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions during the next several days.
1763: As a part of "Pontiac's War," Indians will ambush a force of 5 dozen rangers in western Virginia. Fifteen of the soldiers will be killed in the fighting. After tracking the Indians, a force of 150 Virginia militia and volunteers, led by Charles Lewis, will find them on the South Fork of the Potomac River. The Europeans will kill 21 of the Indians without suffering a single loss.
1786: A group of 30 settlers, organized by the McNitt family, are moving from Virginia to Kentucky. Tonight near present day London, Kentucky, they are attacked by a CHICKAMAUGA war party. Twenty-one of the Europeans will be killed, and 5 will be captured. Of the 4 people who escape, one, a pregnant woman, will hide in a hollow log, where she gives birth.
1790: John Ross, destined to become one of the most famous CHEROKEE Chiefs, is born today in Rossville, Georgia. While Ross is only one-eighth CHEROKEE, he will spend his entire life working for the tribe.
1818: Lewis Cass, representing the United States, and the DELAWARE Indians sign a treaty today on the St.Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty will trade all of their lands in Indiana for land west of the Mississippi, supplies, and an increase in their annual payments from previous treaties.
1836: 165 of Captain F.S.Belton's original 210 CREEK "prisoners" are delivered to Indian Territory. Seventeen were given over to civil authorities. The rest either died in transit, or were unaccounted for.
1838: Black Hawk dies
1854: Major Haller marches to avenge Bolon's death
1872: Lt.Eben Crosby, seventeenth infantry, Lt.L.D.Adair, twenty-second infantry, and a citizen are hunting near the Heart River, in Dakota, when they are attacked by SIOUX Indians. In a fight which will last until tomorrow, all 3 will be killed.
1872: According to Army reports, on this date, TONKAWA Indian scouts attacked a COMANCHE camp in Jones County, Texas. No other details are listed in the report.
1873: Captain Jack is hanged today for his part in the MODOC War.
1962: An Act passed today allows the Federal Governemnt to accquire land on the Crow Creek SIOUX Reservation in South Dakota for the Big Bend Dam.
Every: PAPAGO festival
1779: Today, 5 boatloads of ammunition and powder are working their way up the Ohio River. As they reach the Licking River, in Kentucky, Colonel David Rigers sees some Indians on the shore. He sends his four dozen men after the Indians. In wait for Rogers are over 130 DELAWARE, MINGO, SHAWNEE and WYANDOT warriors, led by Mathew Elliot and Simon Girty. All but a few of of the Americans are killed in the ambush. The Indians will lose only 2 men.
1838: Elijah Hicks, and 748 CHEROKEEs will be the second group of CHEROKEEs to leave the Tennessee Cherokee Agency area under their own supervision. They are part of the forced removal of the CHEROKEEs to the Indian Territory. They will arrive on January 4, 1839.
1842: CHIPPEWA sign a treaty today in La Pointe, Wisconsin.
1868: Major Henry Douglass reports Indians have wounded a Mexican near Lime-Kiln. They also attacked a wagon train, killing 2 men, and wounding 2 more. An attack at Asher Creek settlement gets the Indians 7 horses and mules.
1878: Dull Knife, and his band of Northern CHEYENNE, cross the Union Pacific line at Alkali station, Nebraska. Stationed in Fort Sidney, in western Nebraska, Major T.T.Thornburgh, and 140 soldiers, board a waiting train in an attempt to catch up to Dull Knife.
1922: Fort Apache, Arizona, which is 7,579.75 acres in size, was established by Executive Order on February 1, 1877.
1944: Van T.Barfoot gets the Congressional Medal of Honor, today.
Every: Feast of St.Francis is celebrated by the "AK-CHIN"
1675: As a part of King Philip's War, Springfield, Massachusetts will be attacked by Indians today. A scout will warning the village, and most of the settlers will make it to fortified dwellings. Two settlers are killed, and 30 buildings will be burned during the fighting.
1731: Today, NATCHEZ warriors, led by Chief Farine, will attack a NATCHITOCHES village at present day Natchitoches, Louisiana. The NATCHEZ will take over the village. The CADDOes and the French, under Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, will retreat to nearby Fort St. Jean. During the subsequent fighting, over the next 8 days, over 6 dozen NATCHEZ will be killed. The NATCHEZ flee into the woods, and would never be a cohesive force again.
1813: Near the Thames River in Canada, today, American forces, led by General William Henry Harrison, and British-Indian forces, led by Henry Proctor and Tecumseh, will fight a decisive battle. Harrison's forces were much stronger. Setting up an ambush, the British and the Indians forces took up different positions. When Harrison's forces attacked the 700 British soldiers, they caved in almost immediately. Tecumseh's Indians, fighting in a swamp, held out until Tecumseh was killed. At the end of the fighting, 600 British were captured, 18 were killed. Thirty-three Indians were killed, while none were captured. The American forces lost 18 men, as well.
1838: Rev. Jesse Bushyhead, and almost 1000 CHEROKEEs begin their emigration to the Indian Territory. Many of the CHEROKEEs in the group are Baptists. They will be allowed to stop on Sundays, so they can conduct religious services. Their march will be delayed almost a month because of thick ice on the Mississippi River. Eighty-two member of this group will die before they reach the Indian Territory on February 23, 1839.
1858: The last execution by Wright as a consequence of the SPOKANE War.
1859: A treaty is concluded today at the Kansas agency between the United States and the KANSA Indians. Representing the United States is Alfred Greenwood.
1870: According to Army records, today, members of company m, sixth cavalry will engage "hostile Indians" at Holliday Creek along the Little Wichita River in Texas. For their "gallantry in pursuit of and fight with Indians", Sergeant Michael Welch, Corporals Samuel Bowden, Daniel Keating, Private Benjamin Wilson and post guide James B.Doshier will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1877: Cheif Joseph according to Army reports, 87 warriors, 84 squaws, and 147 children will surrender.
1878: According to the commander of Fort Clark, near present day Del Rio, Texas, 4 children of the Dowdy family are killed by Indians on the Johnson's Fork of the Guadalupe River.
1879: After marching 170 miles in a little over 48 hours, Col.Wesley merritt, and troops a,b,i, and m, fifth cavalry, numbering 350 men, reach Major T.T.Thornburgh's encircled men on the Milk River in Colorado, at 5am in the morning. During the fight which started on September 30, 1879, the army reported 12 men, including Major Thornburgh, were killed. Forty in Thornburgh's command were wounded. The Army estimated the size of the UTE force to be between 300, and 350. Indian sources would report the death of 37 UTEs, during the fighting. A subsequent search at the White River Agency, would reveal the bodies of seven men, including the Agent, N.C.Meeker.
1898: "For distinguished bravery in action against hostile Indians," Private Oscar Burkard, Hospital Corps, US Army, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of honor. This fighting was a part of the CHIPPEWA (OJIBWA) uprising at Lake Leech in northern Minnesota. This would be the last Medal of Honor issued for fighting Indians.
1539: Today, de Soto will reach the APALACHEE town of Iniahica, near present day Tallahassee. He will pick this town as his winter quarters. He will maintain this camp until March 3, 1540.
1598: Today, Juan de Onate will leave his base in San Juan Pueblo. He is en route to "visit" the PUEBLOs to the west.
1713: Indians will attack Captain Richard Hunnewel, and 19 men working in the fields outside Black Point, Maine today. Only 1 European will survive in this fight on Prout's Neck in Scarborough. A nearby pond is called Massacre Pond because of this battle.
1759: In retribution for ABNAKI attacks on New England settlements, Major Robert Rogers, 180 of his rangers, and a few STCOKBRIDGE scouts, stage a pre-dawn attack on the ABNAKI village at St. Francis, Quebec. Rogers claimed to kill 200 ABNAKIs, while his losses were one scout. He recovered 5 captives, and 600 "English" scalps.
1774: In what would be called Lord Dunmore's War, Virginia Governor, John Murray, the Earl of Dunmore will authorize an Army of Virginians to go into SHAWNEE territory, despite the royal proclamation of October 7th, 1763, which prohibited European settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains. Dunmore had granted lands to veterans in the prohibited area, and he planned on helping them get it. Today around 800 SHAWNEEs, under Chief Cornstalk, will attack Dunmore's force of 850 men at Point Pleasant, in present day western West Virginia, on the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers. The fighting would last all day. Both sides would suffer numerous casualties. Cornstalk would lose the battle, and eventually sign a peace treaty with the Virginians.
1851: One in a series of treaties is signed today with California Indians on the Lower Klamath. The document promises lands for the Indians and to protect them from angry Americans.
1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin Parke, representing the United States, sign a treaty with the MIAMI Indians at the Saint Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The MIAMI will give up a large section of their lands for an annuity. (7 stat.189)
1825: The MAKAH sign a treaty today.
1986: Today, Congress will designate the path the NEZ PERCE took in their flight from the Army in 1877 as "the NEZ PERCE Historical Trail."
1870: Troop k, second cavalry, at the Carlisle School.
1672: White Mountain APACHEs raid the ZUNI pueblo of Hawikum, and kill a priest named Pedro de Abila y Ayala today.
1701: In a farewell address to William Penn, SUSQUEHANNAH Chief Oretyagh, along with other SHAWNEE leaders, request, again, that traders be prevented from selling alcohol to the local Indians. Penn assures them that the Pennsylvania assembly is do just that.
1759: Last year, TAWEHASH Indians helped to destroy the Spanish Mission of San Saba de la Santa Cruz in east Texas. The Spanish have finally gathered a punative expedition, leading 1,000 Spanish and pro-Spanish Indians, Diego Ortiz Parrilla will attack the TAWEHASH village today. With their allies the COMANCHEs and the TAWAKONIs, the TAWEHASH fight back. The TAWEHASH will win the day, and force the retreat of the Spanish allied forces, killing as many as 100 men in the process.
1763: As a result of Pontiac's Rebellion, the British Government will issue a proclamation today prohibiting Europeans from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
1775: Pittsburgh treaty: Congressional commissioners meet with several Indian tribes today. They agree to the Ohio River as the local boundary line. The Indians agree to release some prisoners and not to get involved in the Revolutionary war.
1861: Today, with Albert Pike, the CHEROKEEs will sign a treaty with the Confederacy in Park Hill on the CHEROKEE Reservation in Indian Territory. The agreement will be almost the same as that of the CREEKs signed on July 10, 1861. Living up to their word, 3 Indian delegates would sit in the Confederate Congress throughout the war, something hinted at by the United States, but never implemented. Pike will present the CHEROKEEs with a special flag for their use during the war.
1863: The TABEGUACHE Band of UTAH Indians sign a treaty today.
1880: A CAMPO Indian has been found guilty of stealing a blanket in San Diego, California. County Justice of the Peace Gaskill orders his punishment to be 100 lashes. Gaskill is quoted as saying: "after one of these Indians has been whipped once, he will never steal again. It makes 'a good Indian' of him." The lashing almost kills the Indian.
1947: WYANDOT Cemetary: Today, legislation is proposed which would sell the "WYANDOTTE Indian burial ground" in Kansas City, Kansas.
1969: Senator Ted Kennedy calls for a White House conference on Indian problems in a speech today. He will criticize B.I.A. efforts.
1541: de Soto fights with CADDO Indians, today, in Tula, Arkansas.
1758: (through October 26): IROQUOIS & DELAWARE treaty - the Council of Easton begins today in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Eventually peace treaties will be signed, and many of the much-hated treaty of Albany will be abrogated.
1779: El Mocho was an APACHE; but, he was captured by the TONKAWAs. His bravery and natural leadership abilities, eventually led the TONKAWAs to make him their Principal Chief. Today, he will meet with Spanish Governor Athanase de Mezieres in San Antonio. They will sign a peace treaty; and, El Mocho (Spanish for mutilated) will be honored with a Medal of Honor. The peace would only last for a few years.
1804: Lewis (of Lewsi & Clark) visits occupied RICARA village.
1832: The eastern CHEROKEEs meet a second time to discuss Elisha Chester's proposal for their removal to the Indian Territory. While some of the lesser-bloods will favor the proposal, the full-bloods will vote it down. Chester warns them that if they do not agree to move, they will face the wrath of the State of Georgia.
1855: James Lupton leads whites against "friendly" rogue river indians in California. They will kill 8 men, and 15 women and children. Survivors will flee to Fort Lane, in southwestern Oregon, for safety.
1873: Today, Big Tree & Satanta will be released from prison today, with the proviso that the KIOWAs remain peaceful. After some raids by the KIOWAs, eventually, Satanta will be returned to prison.
1984: Dennis Banks gets jail for 3 years.
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