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September 1st to 8th in American Indian History by Phil Konstantin
1640: A treaty agreement cover land cessions between the MOHEGANs and Connecticut will be reached today.
1776: On july 20, 1776, CHICKAMAUGA warriors attack Eaton Station, Tennessee. Based on this attack, a force of over 2,000 militia and some CATAWBA Indians,led by General Griffith Rutherford, march into the Tennessee mountains. While they will only kill a dozen CHEROKEE warriors, they will destroy most of the CHEROKEE villages in Tennessee and South Carolina.
1788: Even after the Treaty of Hopewell, whites will continue to settle on CHEROKEE lands along the Holston and French Broad Rivers. Today Congress will issue a proclamation prohibiting whites from settling on CHEROKEE lands.
1813: Today, a CREEK war party will attack several farms near Fort Sinquefield, Alabama. They will kill several of the settlers. One woman, Sarah Merrill, left for dead by the CREEKs, will stagger through the woods for miles carrying her baby, also left for dead. Her ordeal will spark additional fury among the local Americans.
1826: CREEK's deadline to go west from their lands east of the Mississippi River.
1830: After discussing President Jackson's removal proposal, CHICKASAW leaders sign a provisional agreement to be removed. Several of the Chiefs present will be offered additional lands. The treaty would never go into effect because it was based on the premise that the CHICKASAWs would share lands with the CHOCTAWs. The CHOCTAWs would not agree to giving up their Indian Territory lands.
1845: Tired of the continuing feud between the "Old Settlers" and the "New Emigrants" factions of the CHEROKEE Nation, 54 CHEROKEE families will leave the Indian Territory reservation to join relatives in Texas.
1858: (through the 5th) Col.George H.Wright, 600 men battle 500 COEUR d'ALENE, and allies at the Battle of Four Lakes, in western Washington. Equipped with rifled barrels and new ammunition, Wright's men will kill five dozen Indians while suffering no mortal wounds themselves. They will fight another battle on the Spokane Plains, in Washington, on the fifth.
1866: Manuelito surrenders
1868: Stage Agent J.H.Jones, of Lake Station, Colorado, reports to the military that a woman and child were killed and scalped by Indians near the station. According to military reports, three people were killed, and 3 people were wounded near Reed Springs. In Spanish Fort, Texas, 4 people were killed, 8 people scalped, and three women "outraged" by Indians. One of the women was "outraged" by 13 Indians, who later scalp and kill her, and her 4 small children.
1881: APACHEs attack Fort Apache, in eastern Arizona. They are upset because Col.Eugene Carr has tried to arrest an APACHE shaman. The medicine man was killed in a fight two days ago.
1911: Today, Executive Order number 1406 will be issued. This will set aside certain lands in New Mexico "for the benefit of the Indians of the JEMEZ PUEBLO."
1732: Today, the first treaty between the IROQUOIS Confederation, and the Pennsylvania Provincial Council will be signed in Philadelphia. The parties will agree to peaceful relations between them. The IROQUOIS also promised to try to persuade the SHAWNEEs to leave Allegheny Valley. The Principal Indian Chief present will be Shikellamy of the ONONDAGA.
1777: Settlers have built a sizeable stockade in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). The area will be the scene of several skirmishes during the next several weeks. Today, a force of 200 MINGO & WYANDOT warriors lay in wait outside the stockade. A few Indians lure a small force of 15 militia out of the fort into the woods. Here the trap is sprung, and most of the soldiers are killed. A relief force of 13 soldiers attempts a rescue. They are attacked as well. A total of 15 soldiers will be killed, while only 1 Indian, will sustain a fatal injury.
1779: General John Sullivan, and his force of 4,500 men continue their attacks on Indians in New York who he suspects are British Allies. Today his forces will level Catherine's Town.
1815: In Portage des Sioux, William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, Ninian Edwards make a peace treaty with the KICKAPOOs for the war of 1812.
1844: Tonight in Wilmington Delaware, CHEROKEE Pricipal Chief John Ross will get married to Mary B. Stapler.
1862: SANTEE SIOUX engage in another fight in the Minnesota Uprising.
1868: Sergeant George J.Dittoe, company a, third infantry, and 4 soldiers are transporting a wagon along Little Coon Creek, when they are attacked by about three dozen Indians. Three of the soldiers are seriously wounded, while 3 Indians are killed and one wounded. One soldier goes to Fort Dodge, in southwestern Kansas, for help. Lt.Thomas Wallace, third infantry, and troops respond to relieve Sergeant Dittoe's men, and chase off the Indians. One of the 4 soldiers, Corporal Leander Herron, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his part in the action.
1876: The NEZ PERCE ell settlers tha they have one week to leave their lands.
1877: Victorio flees the San Carlos Reservation
Every: ACOMA PUEBLO festival.
1719: Today, Frenchman Bernard de la Harpe, discovers an Indian village on the Arkansas River, near Muskogee. La Harpe had traveled up the Red river, then went overland across Oklahoma. He will describe the land as fertile, and the people (probably a CADDOAN tribe) as friendly, and hard working. La Harpe will claim the land for France.
1783: The Treaty of Paris is signed.
1822: The SAC & FOX sign a treaty dealing with lands in Wisconsin & Illinois today.
1836: The 2300 CREEK prisoners reach Fort Gibson in eastern Indian Territory, today. Approximately 81 CREEKs will die during the journey from Alabama.
1836: Today, Col.Henry Dodge, and the MENOMINEE Indians will sign a peace treaty at Cedar Point, Wisconsin. In exchange for an annuity of $20,000, the MENOMINEE will cede most of their lands along the Menominee, Wolf, and Wisconsin Rivers.
1855: Little Thunder has taken over as Chief after the killing of Conquering Bear in the fight with Lt.Grattan's men. He has almost 250 warriors in his camp. General William S.Harney has 600 soldiers. After the fighting, there are 100 dead SIOUX, and 5 dead soldiers, according to Harney. Harney will take 70 prisoners, almost all women and children. Based on his actions today, the SIOUX will give Harney the name "The Butcher".
1863: At Whitestone, General Alfred Sully, and 1,200 soldiers, attacks Inkpaduta's SANTEE SIOUX village. 300 warriors are killed. 250 women and children are captured. Sully would lose 22 soldiers in the fighting.
1868: According to Major Joseph Tilford, seventh cavalry, commander at Fort Reynolds, in southeastern Colorado, 4 people are killed by Indians, near Colorado City. Indians also attack the station at Hugo Springs, but are repelled by the occupants.
1907: Today, in Oklahoma, Principal Chief of the CREEK Nation, Pleasant porter (Talof Harjo) will die.
Every: ST.Augustine feast
1801: Today, a two day conference begins at Southwest Point, located at the juncture of the Tennessee and the Clinch Rivers. Representatives of the United States and the CHEROKEEs will discuss more roads through CHEROKEE lands. Because of a lack of enforcement by the United States of previous treaties, the CHEROKEEs will not agree to any U.S. proposals.
1854: A peace treaty will be signed today with the MODOCs of Tule Lake. They are out of supplies, by this time. The fighting started on August 18, 1854.
1878: Col.Nelson Miles, 150 men of the fifth infantry, and 35 CROW scouts, have been traveling up Clark's Fork of the Yellowstone, near Heart Mountain, looking for hostile BANNOCK Indians, reported to be in the area. The soldiers come up on a camp, and attacking the residents. Eleven BANNOCKs are killed, and 31 are captured. 200 horses and mules are seized. An interpreter, an Indian scout, and Captain Andrew Bennett are killed in the fighting. One soldier is wounded.
1879: Members of Captain Ambrose Hooker's troop e, ninth cavalry, are guarding the cavalry horses near Ojo Caliente, New Mexico, when they are attacked by Indians. Eight soldiers are killed, and the Indians capture 46 of the soldier's mounts. The dead soldiers are African-Americans. They are commonly referred to as "buffalo soldiers" by the Indians.
1882: Today, at Whipple Barracks, General George Crook officially takes over command of the Department of Arizona. The veteran indian fighter is brought in to deal with the APACHEs.
1886: Geronimo surrenders to General Nelson Miles at Skelton Canyon south of Apache Pass.
1779: General John Sullivan's forces continue their attack on suspected pro-British forces in New York. Today they will demolish Kendaia (Appletown).
1785: Georgians continue to trespass on CREEK lands. Today, Chief Alexander McGillivray writes Congress demanding that they protect his people from the settlers which previous treaties has promised.
1814: today will see the start of the two day battle of Credit Island, near present day Davenport, Iowa. Major Zackary Taylor, and 334 American soldiers are making their way up the Mississippi River attacking British positions with considerable success. Today they will encounter a force of 1000 Indians and British. The allied army will force Taylor to withdraw to safety in Saint Louis.
1836: A fifth group of "friendly" CREEKs, numbering 1984, under command of Lt.J.T.Sprague, leave Tallassee (northwest of modern Tuskegee), today, for Indian Territory.
1858: Colonel George Wright, commanding the local Army, will fight with the COEUR d'ALENE, COLUMBIA RIVER, COLVILLE, KALISPEL nad SPOKANE Indians on the Spokane Plains. The Army will defeat the Indians.
1862: Today, Little Crow hears news of Big Eagle and Mankato's battle with Col.Henry "Long Trader" Sibley's troops at Birch Coulee. They have managed to bottle up the troops for an entire day, only cannon being brought up will end the fighting on the second day.
1865: The SIOUX will fight with American forces under Col.Cole at the Powder River, today.
1868: Indians steal 5 cattle at Hugo Springs Station. Later that day, they also attack and burn Willow Springs Station.
1869: Troops from Fort Stanton, in southern New Mexico chase a group of "hostiles". During the ensuing fight, 3 Indians will be killed, and 7 will be wounded. Two troopers will be wounded.
1871: The White Mountain Reservation is chosen today as the site where the APACHE Indians of Arizona can be "collected, fed, clothed...provided for, and protected." This decision was made by Vincent Colyer, Commissioner, Board of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior.
1878: BANNOCKs fight with Howard's soldiers at Clark's Ford.
1823: Today, 70 SEMINOLEs will meet with peace commissioners from the United States. This will be the first such efforts to reach an agreement with the SEMINOLEs by the United States after having bought Florida from the Spanish in 1819. A treaty would be signed on September 18th.
1839: Today, a conference is held by both the "old settlers" and the "new emigrant" CHEROKEEs in Tahlequah, Indian Territory (oklahoma). John Ross will be elected Principal Chief of the newly rejoined CHEROKEE Nation. David Vann will be elected Second Chief. A new constitution will be adopted. The convention will continue until October 10, 1839. Many "old settlers" wil disavow any actions taken by this convention. They will believe that the old settler government is still in power.
1856: CHEYENNE & ARAPAHO attack a wagon train of Mormons on the Platte River, today. Two men, a woman, and a child are killed. One woman is kidnapped during the fighting.
1864: Today, Fort Zarah, will be established on Walnut Creek, near the Santa Fe Trail and the main Indian trail in the section of Kansas. The fort will serve as a base of operations against "hostile Indinas" until December 1869.
1864: Major Edward "Tall Chief" Wynkoop is the commander at Fort Lyon, southeastern Colorado. Black Kettle, and as many as 2200 CHEYENNE, ARAPAHO, and SIOUX are camped with him on Smoky Hill River. Black Kettle send outs messengers that he would deliver white prisoners in exchange for Indian prisoners, and to discuss moving to the reservation. Wynkoop receives a copy of this message from One Eye, and Eagle Head. Hopelessly outnumbered, he has 127 soldiers, Wynkoop will decide to go to the Smokey Hill camp to talk with Black Kettle. Wynkoop would eventually take the 4 white children held captive, and 7 Chiefs, including Black Kettle, to Denver to discuss ways to end the fighting in Colorado.
1877: Army records show Crazy Horse died on the night of September 7th.
1973: The Oklahoma Human Rights Commission requests state schools drop rules requiring Indian students to cut their long hair. They felt the rules would "promote racial friction and community divisiveness."
1732: According to some sources, a land cession agreement is made today by representatives of the DELAWARE Indians and Pennsylvania.
1778: (through the 17th) The SHAWNEE attack Boonesborough. Captain Antoine Dagneaux de Quindre, with 11 soldiers, and 444 SHAWNEEs, including Chief Blackfish, demand the surrender of Boonesborough. Daniel Boone is commanding the 60 American sharpshooters in the fort. After losing 35 warriors to the Kentucky fighters, the Indians would quit on the 20th. Boone's forces would report only 4 men were killed in the fighting. Some sources put the settlers' numbers at 30 men, and 20 young men, with a few women and children. The losses were also reported at 37 SHAWNEE, and 2 settlers.
1831: Major Francis Armstrong is appointed Agent to the CHOCTAWs in Indian Territory today. He will assist in their move to the Indian Territory.
1849: Col.J.M.Washington, with soldiers, and "friendly" Indians, confront the NAVAJOs in Canyon de Chelly. Mariano Martinez, and Cahpitone, agree to return stolen property, and Mexican prisoners.
1862: Today, Little Crow will write a letter to Col.Henry Sibley. He will explain why the fighting started, that he had white prisoners, and he wanted to negotiate. Sibley's reply would be to release the prisoners, and then they would talk. Little Crow is concerned for the SANTEE's safety because he has heard that Governor Alexander Ramsey wants the SANTEE dead or banished from Minnesota. Because Sibley had been a trader among the Indians, they call him "Long Trader".
1868: The "Hon.Schuyler Colfax" telegraphs the Army that 25 people have been killed, and a general uprising is going on in southern Ccolorado.
1917: Today, by Executive Order, President Woodrow Wilson will "reserve from entry, sale or other disposal, and set aside for administrative purposes in connection with tribal grazing leases" 320 acres on the CROW Reservation in Montana.
1957: An Act of Congress gives the CHILKAT Indians mineral rights to their lands near Klukwan. They will be one of only a very small number of Alaskans with this provision.
1968: The Indian Council Fire awards this year's Indian Achievement Award to Rev.Dr.Roe B.Lewis, of Phoenix, Arizona. Lewis, a PIMA-PAPAGO, is cited for his efforts in educational counseling for Indians.
1972: A decision is given today that says that North Dakota cannot tax Indians on reservation.
1535: Cartier reaches Stadacone.
1565: Today, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, accompanied by 1,500 soldiers and colonists will establish the town of St. Augustine, Florida. St. Augustine will become the oldest constantly occupied European town in the United States. To secure his foothold in the area, de Aviles will attack the French settlements on the nearby St. Johns River.
1598: Today, Juan de Onate, and his nephew and second in command, Vincente de Zaldivar, complete, and dedicate a church, north of present day Espanola.
1756: Col.John Armstrong, will lead approximately 300 Pennsylvania soldiers against the DELAWARE village of Kittanning, today, in retaliation for their attack on Fort Granville on July 30th. DEAWARE Chief, Captain Jacob, is trapped in his house. He is ordered to surrender, and he refuses. His house is set on fire, and he is burned to death. Armstrong will estimate DELAWARE losses at 40 killed, and his own at 18. He will recover many English prisoners.
1779: General John Sullivan's force of 4500 men continue their retaliatory strikes against suspected pro-British Indian villages. Today they will destroy Canadasaga, Kittanning and other nearby villages in New York.
1815: William Henry Harrison, Duncan McArthur, and John Graham, representing the United States, and the DELAWARE, MIAMI, SENECA, SHAWNEE, and WYANDOT tribes signed a treaty ending the warfare in the area, today. The treaty will be signed near Detroit at Spring Wells, Michigan.
1865: Today, a grand council of the formerly pro-Union, and pro-Confederacy Indians is held at Fort Smith, Kansas. The newly appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Dennis N.Cooley, will chair the meeting. Most of the Indians are told that they have forfeited their lands, and annuities by their traitorous support of the south. Each tribe would have to plead its case for mercy.
1868: Captain Henry Bankhead, commander of Fort Wallace, reports 25 Indians killed and scalped 2 citizens near Sheridan (mear modern day Winona). Indians also stole 76 horses and mules from Clark's wagon train on Turkey Creek.
1868: Lt.David Wallingford, seventh cavalry, arrives to help a wagon train of 50 men and 35 wagons, who have been fighting Indians for the last 4 days at Cimmaron Crossing. Two men had been killed, and the Indians had escaped with 75 head of cattle. Five miles to the west, the soldiers discover the remnants of another wagon train. Fifteen men, in this train were burned to death.
1876: American Horse is captured.
1872: Elements of company e, fifth cavalry, are engaging "hostile APACHEs" at Date Creek in Arizona. Sergeant Frank E. Hill manages to "secure the person of a hostile APACHE Chief, although while holding the Chief he was severely wounded in the back by another Indian." For his actions, Hill will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1880: Today, at Fort Keogh, in eastern Montana, Big Road, and 200 SIOUX surrender.
1883: Today in Bismarck, Dakota, the Northern Pacific Railroad is celebrating the completion of their transcontinental railroad line. They invite Sitting Bull to make a speech to welcome the dignitaries at the celebration, as a representative of the Indians. Sitting Bull, speaking through an interpreter, instead says that the whites are liars and thieves, and he hates all of them, while smiling throughout the entire speech. The shocked interpreter, a young Army officer, delivers the planned speech, instead of Sitting Bull's real words. Sitting Bull is a great success, and receives a standing ovation. Railroad officials will ask Sitting Bull to make additional speeches elsewhere based on his reception today.
1960: The United States Solicitor sends Senator Mike Mansfield a memo today. The Solicitor has determined that county officials are not allowed to charge 4 Indians of the Flathead Reservation personal property taxes. The 4 men work for the Montana Power Company at the Federal Kerr Dam on the reservation. The county had tried to collect personal property taxes on the men because, while their job was on reservation land, it was not reservation related.
1970: The RAMAH Chapter of NAVAJO Indians, in western New Mexico, establish their own independent school board, today, after the local public school is closed.
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